A model for performance enhancement in competitive cycling

Patrick Cangley, Louis Passfield, Helen Carter, Martin Bailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

A 3D cycling model is presented that combines bicycle dynamics, a tyre model, rider biomechanics and environmental factors into a single dynamic system. The system is constructed using Matlab toolboxes (SimMechanics/Simulink) with the aim of identifying mechanical mechanisms that can influence performance in a road cycling time trial. Initial conditions are specified and a variable step ODE solver numerically integrates solutions to the equations of motion. Initial validation compared rider-less self-stability presented in a published “benchmark” with model simulation and found an error of <1.5%. Model results included the weave eigenvalue becoming negative at 4.2 m/s and the capsize eigenvalue approaching a positive value at 6.1 m/s. The tyre model predicted peak front tyre slip and camber forces of 130 N and 17 N respectively which were within 0.9% of values reported in the literature. Experimental field validation compared actual and model predicted time taken by 14 experienced cyclists to complete a time trial over an undulating 2.5 mile road course. An error level of 1.4% (±1.5%) was found between actual and predicted time. This compares well with the average 1.32% error reported by existing road cycling models over simpler courses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-71
Number of pages13
JournalMovement and Sport Sciences - Science and Motricite
Volume75
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2011

Fingerprint

Tires
Cambers
Bicycles
Biomechanics
Equations of motion
Dynamical systems

Bibliographical note

© ACAPS, EDP Sciences, 2011

Cite this

@article{ed88cb5c5597494fa07a58740b338278,
title = "A model for performance enhancement in competitive cycling",
abstract = "A 3D cycling model is presented that combines bicycle dynamics, a tyre model, rider biomechanics and environmental factors into a single dynamic system. The system is constructed using Matlab toolboxes (SimMechanics/Simulink) with the aim of identifying mechanical mechanisms that can influence performance in a road cycling time trial. Initial conditions are specified and a variable step ODE solver numerically integrates solutions to the equations of motion. Initial validation compared rider-less self-stability presented in a published “benchmark” with model simulation and found an error of <1.5{\%}. Model results included the weave eigenvalue becoming negative at 4.2 m/s and the capsize eigenvalue approaching a positive value at 6.1 m/s. The tyre model predicted peak front tyre slip and camber forces of 130 N and 17 N respectively which were within 0.9{\%} of values reported in the literature. Experimental field validation compared actual and model predicted time taken by 14 experienced cyclists to complete a time trial over an undulating 2.5 mile road course. An error level of 1.4{\%} (±1.5{\%}) was found between actual and predicted time. This compares well with the average 1.32{\%} error reported by existing road cycling models over simpler courses.",
author = "Patrick Cangley and Louis Passfield and Helen Carter and Martin Bailey",
note = "{\circledC} ACAPS, EDP Sciences, 2011",
year = "2011",
month = "10",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1051/sm/2011126",
language = "English",
volume = "75",
pages = "59--71",
journal = "Movement and Sport Sciences - Science and Motricite",
issn = "2118-5735",

}

A model for performance enhancement in competitive cycling. / Cangley, Patrick; Passfield, Louis; Carter, Helen; Bailey, Martin.

In: Movement and Sport Sciences - Science and Motricite, Vol. 75, 25.10.2011, p. 59-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A model for performance enhancement in competitive cycling

AU - Cangley, Patrick

AU - Passfield, Louis

AU - Carter, Helen

AU - Bailey, Martin

N1 - © ACAPS, EDP Sciences, 2011

PY - 2011/10/25

Y1 - 2011/10/25

N2 - A 3D cycling model is presented that combines bicycle dynamics, a tyre model, rider biomechanics and environmental factors into a single dynamic system. The system is constructed using Matlab toolboxes (SimMechanics/Simulink) with the aim of identifying mechanical mechanisms that can influence performance in a road cycling time trial. Initial conditions are specified and a variable step ODE solver numerically integrates solutions to the equations of motion. Initial validation compared rider-less self-stability presented in a published “benchmark” with model simulation and found an error of <1.5%. Model results included the weave eigenvalue becoming negative at 4.2 m/s and the capsize eigenvalue approaching a positive value at 6.1 m/s. The tyre model predicted peak front tyre slip and camber forces of 130 N and 17 N respectively which were within 0.9% of values reported in the literature. Experimental field validation compared actual and model predicted time taken by 14 experienced cyclists to complete a time trial over an undulating 2.5 mile road course. An error level of 1.4% (±1.5%) was found between actual and predicted time. This compares well with the average 1.32% error reported by existing road cycling models over simpler courses.

AB - A 3D cycling model is presented that combines bicycle dynamics, a tyre model, rider biomechanics and environmental factors into a single dynamic system. The system is constructed using Matlab toolboxes (SimMechanics/Simulink) with the aim of identifying mechanical mechanisms that can influence performance in a road cycling time trial. Initial conditions are specified and a variable step ODE solver numerically integrates solutions to the equations of motion. Initial validation compared rider-less self-stability presented in a published “benchmark” with model simulation and found an error of <1.5%. Model results included the weave eigenvalue becoming negative at 4.2 m/s and the capsize eigenvalue approaching a positive value at 6.1 m/s. The tyre model predicted peak front tyre slip and camber forces of 130 N and 17 N respectively which were within 0.9% of values reported in the literature. Experimental field validation compared actual and model predicted time taken by 14 experienced cyclists to complete a time trial over an undulating 2.5 mile road course. An error level of 1.4% (±1.5%) was found between actual and predicted time. This compares well with the average 1.32% error reported by existing road cycling models over simpler courses.

U2 - 10.1051/sm/2011126

DO - 10.1051/sm/2011126

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 59

EP - 71

JO - Movement and Sport Sciences - Science and Motricite

JF - Movement and Sport Sciences - Science and Motricite

SN - 2118-5735

ER -