Objectives In a previous study a set of new molecular-type specific primers were designed to apply the standard ISHAM consensus multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to Cryptococcus neoformans AD hybrids. In the present study, we report the preliminary results of the investigation by MLST of a large number of AD hybrids with the aim to identify the circulating genotypes, their phylogenesis, and population genetics.
Methods A total of 50 AD-hybrid isolates from different parts of the world and from different sources were genotyped by MLST. Minimum spanning trees using GoeBurst algorithm were generated by comparing hybrid genotypes and by comparing separately either allele-A and allele-D portions of the hybrid genotypes to the haplotypes recorded in the MLST global database.
Results Analysis identified 32 hybrid genotypes grouped in three distinct main clusters (CC12, CC21, and CC30) including 12 isolates each. Both CC12 and CC21 clusters included isolates from different countries and continents but the former grouped only isolates with mating type aADalpha whereas the latter those with mating type alphaADa. Cluster CC30 included only isolates from Ivory Coasts. Heterozygous allelic combinations in each of the seven MLST loci presented two or three combinations more frequent than the other ones. In some isolates, one or more alleles were not amplified after multiple attempts, and therefore, they were considered as lacking. A total of 22 MLST profiles were identified by analyzing separately the allele-A combinations of the hybrids. Comparison with all MLST profiles of VNI, VNII, and VNB included in the MLST global database showed that the allele-A portion of the hybrid genotypes was grouped in few VNI or VNB clusters. In none of the investigated hybrids, the allele-A portion originated from VNII genotypes. Similarly, when the MLST profile of allele-D portion of hybrids was compared to all VNIV genotypes present in the global MLST database, few clusters were identified but, in this case, mostly originated from genotypes not yet found among VNIV haplotypes.
Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that the AD hybrids here investigated originated from the mating of A haploids very common in both clinical and environmental isolates and D haploids that are not circulating at present or are very rare. Therefore, it is likely that hybrids originated in the environment where VNIV genotypic diversity is higher and suitable AD combinations can occur. Sequencing of further AD hybrids is in progress to confirm these results.
|Published - 20 Sept 2022
- Infectious Diseases
- General Medicine