Reliability of a wearable sweat rate monitor and routine sweat analysis techniques under heat stress in females

Rebecca Relf, Ashley Willmott, Melaine Flint, Louisa Beale, Neil Maxwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of five different sweat analysis techniques which measure; whole body sweat rate [WBSR], local sweat rate [LSR] (via technical absorbent [TA] method and KuduSmart® monitor), sweat conductivity [SC] and sweat gland activation [SGA] in a female population when exercising moderately under heat stress. Methods: Fourteen females (age; 26 ± 7 years, body mass; 66.5 ± 7.6 kg, height; 167.1 ± 6.4 cm) completed a preliminary threshold walking test (to determine exercise intensity) and two main trials, separated by 2 days. Main trials consisted of 30-minutes seated rest in the environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity) in an upper body sauna-suit, before its removal, and walking at a moderate intensity (4 metabolic equivalents) for 30-minutes (speeds ranged from 4.8-6.5 km.hr-1). WBSR was measured via nude mass pre and post exercise. The TA and Tegaderm patches (for sweat sodium chloride) were placed on the back, forearm and chest for the entire 60-minutes, replicated for all participants for both trials. SGA was assessed following the 60-minute trial and the KuduSmart® monitor was placed on the left arm for the 30-minutes of exercise. Results: WBSR, LSR methods and SC demonstrated no difference between trials (p >0.05), good agreement (within limits), strong correlations (r ≥ 0.88) and low typical error of measurements [TEM] (<0.04L.min-1, 0.13 mg.min-1.cm-2 and 8 mmol.L-1, respectively). SGA method showed moderate intra-class correlation (r=0.80), with high TEM (5 glands) and large limits of agreement. Conclusion: Sudomotor function is reliable, as demonstrated by good reliability, small TEM and strong correlations. The use of these sweat techniques is appropriate and practical in females who are exercising at moderate intensity under heat stress, and so, may aid future interventions. SGA shows larger variation and should be used with caution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-217
JournalJournal of Thermal Biology
Volume79
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2018

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Sweat
Hot Temperature
Sweat Glands
Walking
Steam Bath
Metabolic Equivalent
Humidity
Forearm
Sodium Chloride
Arm
Thorax

Keywords

  • Sweat analysis
  • heat stress
  • exercise
  • reliability
  • females

Cite this

@article{a4d961b85397475aaed24ca79d384f08,
title = "Reliability of a wearable sweat rate monitor and routine sweat analysis techniques under heat stress in females",
abstract = "Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of five different sweat analysis techniques which measure; whole body sweat rate [WBSR], local sweat rate [LSR] (via technical absorbent [TA] method and KuduSmart{\circledR} monitor), sweat conductivity [SC] and sweat gland activation [SGA] in a female population when exercising moderately under heat stress. Methods: Fourteen females (age; 26 ± 7 years, body mass; 66.5 ± 7.6 kg, height; 167.1 ± 6.4 cm) completed a preliminary threshold walking test (to determine exercise intensity) and two main trials, separated by 2 days. Main trials consisted of 30-minutes seated rest in the environmental chamber (35°C, 50{\%} relative humidity) in an upper body sauna-suit, before its removal, and walking at a moderate intensity (4 metabolic equivalents) for 30-minutes (speeds ranged from 4.8-6.5 km.hr-1). WBSR was measured via nude mass pre and post exercise. The TA and Tegaderm patches (for sweat sodium chloride) were placed on the back, forearm and chest for the entire 60-minutes, replicated for all participants for both trials. SGA was assessed following the 60-minute trial and the KuduSmart{\circledR} monitor was placed on the left arm for the 30-minutes of exercise. Results: WBSR, LSR methods and SC demonstrated no difference between trials (p >0.05), good agreement (within limits), strong correlations (r ≥ 0.88) and low typical error of measurements [TEM] (<0.04L.min-1, 0.13 mg.min-1.cm-2 and 8 mmol.L-1, respectively). SGA method showed moderate intra-class correlation (r=0.80), with high TEM (5 glands) and large limits of agreement. Conclusion: Sudomotor function is reliable, as demonstrated by good reliability, small TEM and strong correlations. The use of these sweat techniques is appropriate and practical in females who are exercising at moderate intensity under heat stress, and so, may aid future interventions. SGA shows larger variation and should be used with caution.",
keywords = "Sweat analysis, heat stress, exercise, reliability, females",
author = "Rebecca Relf and Ashley Willmott and Melaine Flint and Louisa Beale and Neil Maxwell",
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doi = "10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.12.019",
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Reliability of a wearable sweat rate monitor and routine sweat analysis techniques under heat stress in females. / Relf, Rebecca; Willmott, Ashley; Flint, Melaine; Beale, Louisa; Maxwell, Neil.

In: Journal of Thermal Biology, Vol. 79, 18.12.2018, p. 209-217.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reliability of a wearable sweat rate monitor and routine sweat analysis techniques under heat stress in females

AU - Relf, Rebecca

AU - Willmott, Ashley

AU - Flint, Melaine

AU - Beale, Louisa

AU - Maxwell, Neil

PY - 2018/12/18

Y1 - 2018/12/18

N2 - Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of five different sweat analysis techniques which measure; whole body sweat rate [WBSR], local sweat rate [LSR] (via technical absorbent [TA] method and KuduSmart® monitor), sweat conductivity [SC] and sweat gland activation [SGA] in a female population when exercising moderately under heat stress. Methods: Fourteen females (age; 26 ± 7 years, body mass; 66.5 ± 7.6 kg, height; 167.1 ± 6.4 cm) completed a preliminary threshold walking test (to determine exercise intensity) and two main trials, separated by 2 days. Main trials consisted of 30-minutes seated rest in the environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity) in an upper body sauna-suit, before its removal, and walking at a moderate intensity (4 metabolic equivalents) for 30-minutes (speeds ranged from 4.8-6.5 km.hr-1). WBSR was measured via nude mass pre and post exercise. The TA and Tegaderm patches (for sweat sodium chloride) were placed on the back, forearm and chest for the entire 60-minutes, replicated for all participants for both trials. SGA was assessed following the 60-minute trial and the KuduSmart® monitor was placed on the left arm for the 30-minutes of exercise. Results: WBSR, LSR methods and SC demonstrated no difference between trials (p >0.05), good agreement (within limits), strong correlations (r ≥ 0.88) and low typical error of measurements [TEM] (<0.04L.min-1, 0.13 mg.min-1.cm-2 and 8 mmol.L-1, respectively). SGA method showed moderate intra-class correlation (r=0.80), with high TEM (5 glands) and large limits of agreement. Conclusion: Sudomotor function is reliable, as demonstrated by good reliability, small TEM and strong correlations. The use of these sweat techniques is appropriate and practical in females who are exercising at moderate intensity under heat stress, and so, may aid future interventions. SGA shows larger variation and should be used with caution.

AB - Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of five different sweat analysis techniques which measure; whole body sweat rate [WBSR], local sweat rate [LSR] (via technical absorbent [TA] method and KuduSmart® monitor), sweat conductivity [SC] and sweat gland activation [SGA] in a female population when exercising moderately under heat stress. Methods: Fourteen females (age; 26 ± 7 years, body mass; 66.5 ± 7.6 kg, height; 167.1 ± 6.4 cm) completed a preliminary threshold walking test (to determine exercise intensity) and two main trials, separated by 2 days. Main trials consisted of 30-minutes seated rest in the environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity) in an upper body sauna-suit, before its removal, and walking at a moderate intensity (4 metabolic equivalents) for 30-minutes (speeds ranged from 4.8-6.5 km.hr-1). WBSR was measured via nude mass pre and post exercise. The TA and Tegaderm patches (for sweat sodium chloride) were placed on the back, forearm and chest for the entire 60-minutes, replicated for all participants for both trials. SGA was assessed following the 60-minute trial and the KuduSmart® monitor was placed on the left arm for the 30-minutes of exercise. Results: WBSR, LSR methods and SC demonstrated no difference between trials (p >0.05), good agreement (within limits), strong correlations (r ≥ 0.88) and low typical error of measurements [TEM] (<0.04L.min-1, 0.13 mg.min-1.cm-2 and 8 mmol.L-1, respectively). SGA method showed moderate intra-class correlation (r=0.80), with high TEM (5 glands) and large limits of agreement. Conclusion: Sudomotor function is reliable, as demonstrated by good reliability, small TEM and strong correlations. The use of these sweat techniques is appropriate and practical in females who are exercising at moderate intensity under heat stress, and so, may aid future interventions. SGA shows larger variation and should be used with caution.

KW - Sweat analysis

KW - heat stress

KW - exercise

KW - reliability

KW - females

U2 - 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.12.019

DO - 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.12.019

M3 - Article

VL - 79

SP - 209

EP - 217

JO - Journal of Thermal Biology

JF - Journal of Thermal Biology

SN - 0306-4565

ER -