Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Microbiological Quality of Bio-Clean II Herbal Remedy

Seyi Samson Enitan, Isaiah Nnanna Ibeh, Christy Chinwe Isitua, Michael Olugbamila Dada, Grace Oluwatoyin Mensah-Agyei, Grace Eleojo Itodo, Richard Yomi Akele, Peace Ojonugwa Idris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: A few studies have demonstrated the medicinal benefits of Bio-Clean II herbal remedy. The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and microbiological quality of Bio-Clean II. Materials and Methods: Samples of the herbal remedy were procured from the manufacturer and were analyzed using standard procedure of analysis including sterility test, Spectrophotometry, Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, and gravimetric method. All the batches of Bio-Clean II examined pass sterility test. Physicochemical characterization of the herbal remedy was as follows: pH (6.86), temperature (25oC), relative density (1.08), conductivity (272 uS/cm) and total dissolved solid (163 mg/L). Phytochemical screening of the herbal remedy revealed the presence of the following bioactive secondary metabolites in varied quantity: resin (+), Flavonoids (+++), Saponins (+), Anthraquinones (+++), Tannin (++), Alkaloids (++) and Cardiac Glycoside (++); except for Steroids which was absent (-). Trace elements analysis revealed the presence of the following in varied quantity: Iron (2.526 mg/L), Zinc (0.033 mg/L) and Iodine (0.025 mg/L), except for Copper and Cobalt which were absent. The results of the proximate analysis were as follows: % Moisture (54.25), % Carbohydrate (11.23), % Crude Protein (12.41), % Crude Fat (9.25), % Crude Fibre (10.65) and % Ash Content (2.21). The outcome of the study shows that all the samples of Bio-Clean II examined were of high microbiological quality and therefore poses no microbial threat to the safety of potential consumers; while the presence of appreciable quantities of some important phytochemical compounds and trace elements in the herbal remedy further underscores its medicinal benefits as earlier reported.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-183
Number of pages9
JournalScholars International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2022


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