Cross Adaptation - Heat and Cold Adaptation to Improve Physiological and Cellular Responses to Hypoxia

Oliver Gibson, Lee Taylor, Peter Watt, Neil Maxwell

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To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of O2, humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment specific adaptations e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. Whilst these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible, due to logistical impracticalities. Cross adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions e.g. HA, or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude. HA can attenuate physiological strain at rest and during moderate intensity exercise at altitude via adaptations allied to improved oxygen delivery to metabolically active tissue, likely following increases in plasma volume and reductions in body temperature. CA appears to improve physiological responses to altitude by attenuating the autonomic response to altitude. While no cross acclimation-derived exercise performance/capacity data have been measured following CA, post-HA improvements in performance underpinned by aerobic metabolism, and therefore dependent on oxygen delivery at altitude, are likely. At a cellular level, heat shock protein responses to altitude are attenuated by prior HA suggesting that an attenuation of the cellular stress response and therefore a reduced disruption to homeostasis at altitude has occurred. This process is known as cross tolerance. The effects of CA on markers of cross tolerance is an area requiring further investigation. Because much of the evidence relating to cross adaptation to altitude has examined the benefits at moderate to high altitudes, future research examining responses at lower altitudes should be conducted given that these environments are more frequently visited by athletes and workers. Mechanistic work to identify the specific physiological and cellular pathways responsible for cross adaptation between heat and altitude, and between cold and altitude, is warranted, as is exploration of benefits across different populations and physical activity profiles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1751-1768
Number of pages18
JournalSports Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2017

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© The Author(s) 2017 Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


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