Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD

M. El-Adawy, Morgan Heikal, A. Rashid A. Aziz, Muhammad Israr Siddiqui, Shahzad Munir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm), 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1) eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1950-1966
Number of pages17
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2017

Bibliographical note

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • GDI engine
  • tumble motion
  • PIV
  • flow bench
  • POD


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