Personal profile

Research interests

Alan Monaghan is a senior lecturer in Nursing. He is a Registered Nurse Adult and Child. His research interest is recognition of the seriously ill child and as the original author of the Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score has a research interest in Early warning scores and their use in various settings.

Royal Alexandra Hospital for Sick Children, Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score.









Playing / Appropriate.


Irritable or Parents concerned.

Lethargic/ Confused

Reduced response to pain.



Pink or Capillary refill 1-2 seconds

Pale or Capillary refill 3 seconds

Grey or Capillary refill 4 seconds.

Tachycardia of 20 above normal rate.

Grey and mottled or capillary refill 5 seconds or above. Tachycardia of 30 above normal rate or bradycardia.



Within normal parameters, no recession or tracheal tug.

> 10 above mean, Using accessory muscles, 30+% Fi02

or 4+ litres/min.

>20 above mean recessing, tracheal tug.

40+% Fi02 or 6+


>30 above or 5 below mean with sternal recession, tracheal tug or grunting.  50% Fi02 or 8 + litres/min.


Score 2  extra for ¼ hourly nebulisers or persistent vomiting followingsurgery.

Monaghan (2005)



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