Well-matchedness in Euler and Linear Diagrams

Gem Stapleton, Peter Rodgers, Anestis Touloumis, Andrew Blake

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBNpeer-review


A key feature of diagrams is well-matchedness, referred to as
iconicity in philosophy. A well-matched diagram has a structural resemblance to its semantics and is believed to be an effective representation. In this paper, we view well-matchedness as a feature of diagrams’ meaning carriers – syntactic relationships that convey meaning. Each meaning carrier may or may not structurally resemble, i.e. be well-matched to, its semantics. This paper provides the first empirical study that evaluates the impact of well-matched meaning carriers on effectiveness in Euler diagrams and linear diagrams. There are two key take-away messages: using only well-matched meaning carriers led to the best task performance and using both well-matched and non-well-matched meaning carriers in a single diagram should be approached with caution.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiagrammatic Representation and Inference - 11th International Conference, Diagrams 2020, Proceedings
EditorsAhti-Veikko Pietarinen, Peter Chapman, Leonie Bosveld-de Smet, Valeria Giardino, James Corter, Sven Linker
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9783030542498
ISBN (Print)9783030542481
Publication statusPublished - 17 Aug 2020
EventInternational Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams - Tallinn, Estonia
Duration: 24 Aug 202028 Aug 2020
Conference number: 11th

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12169 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceInternational Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams
Abbreviated titleDiagrams 2020
Internet address

Bibliographical note

The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54249-8_20


  • Diagrams
  • Iconicity
  • Sets
  • Visualization
  • Well-matched


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