The gene SMART study: method, study design, and preliminary findings

Xu Yan, Ioannis D. Papadimitriou, Nir Eynon, Jujiao Kuang, Fiona Munson, Oren Tirosh, Lannie O'Keefe, Lynn R. Griffiths, Kevin J. Ashton, Nuala Byrne, Yannis Pitsiladis, David J. Bishop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The gene SMART (genes and the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Training) Staims to identify genetic variants that predict the response to both a single session of Hi Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE) and to four weeks of High-Intensity Interval Train (HIIT). While the training and testing centre is located at Victoria University, Melbour three other centres have been launched at Bond University, The Queensland University Technology, Australia, and The University of Brighton, UK. Currently 47 participants h already completed the study and the overall aim is to recruit 200 moderately-trained, heal Caucasians participants (all males 18-45 y, BMI < 30). Participants will undergo exerc testing and exercise training by an identical exercise program. Dietary habits will be asses by questionnaire and dietitian consultation. Activity history is assessed by questionnaire current activity level is assessed by an activity monitor. Skeletal muscle biopsies and bl samples will be collected before, immediately after, and 3 hours post HIIE, with the fou resting biopsy and blood sample taken after four weeks of supervised HIIT (3 train sessions per week). Each session consists of eight to fourteen 2-minute intervals perfor at the pre-training lactate threshold (LT) power plus 40 to 70% of the difference between p training lactate threshold (LT) and peak aerobic power (Wpeak). A number of muscle blood analyses will be performed, including (but not limited to) genotyping, mitochond respiration, transcriptomics, protein expression analyses, and enzyme activity. A subgroup the participants will undergo a 4-week control period, and would serve as control group.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC Genomics
Issue numberS8
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2017

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s). 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.


  • Genetic variants
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Training


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