Supporting LGBT+ People Experiencing Hate: Perspectives from LGBT+ Youth and Community Workers

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    Based on data taken from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT+) youth and community workers, this article highlights the occupational stressors experienced by LGBT+ professionals who provide emotional support to service users and theorises the potential for vicarious victimisation to occur as a result. Research suggests that the emotional harms of ‘hate’ can indirectly victimise those with a shared identity as the primary victim, through emotional contagion. However, little research has been carried out on those who support victims of hate. I theorise that vicarious victimisation may occur where an individual, who shares the primary victim’s identity, takes on their experiences through a therapeutic relationship as a negative consequence of the emotional labour performed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-19
    Number of pages19
    JournalSociological Research Online
    Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (


    • LGBT+
    • emotional labour
    • hate
    • identity-based violence
    • vicarious trauma
    • vicarious victimisation
    • victim support
    • victims


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