Perceptual-cognitive skills and their interaction as a function of task constraints in soccer

Andre Roca, Paul Ford, Allistair P. McRobert, A. Mark Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ability to anticipate and to make decisions is crucial to skilled performance in many sports. We examined the role of and interaction between the different perceptual-cognitive skills underlying anticipation and decision making. Skilled and less skilled players interacted as defenders with life-size film sequences of 11 versus 11 soccer situations. Participants were presented with task conditions in which the ball was located in the offensive or defensive half of the pitch (far vs. near conditions). Participants' eye movements and verbal reports of thinking were recorded across two experiments. Skilled players reported more accurate anticipation and decision making than less skilled players, with their superior performance being underpinned by differences in task-specific search behaviors and thought processes. The perceptual-cognitive skills underpinning superior anticipation and decision making were shown to differ in importance across the two task constraints. Findings have significant implications for those interested in capturing and enhancing perceptual-cognitive skill in sport and other domains.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-155
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2013


  • expertise and expert performance
  • eye movements
  • verbal reports
  • situational task constraints


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