Currently, clinicians observe pain-related behaviors and use patient self-report measures in order to determine pain severity. This paper reviews the evidence when facial expression is used as a measure of pain. We review the literature reporting the relevance of facial expression as a diagnostic measure, which facial movements are indicative of pain, and whether such movements can be reliably used to measure pain. We conclude that although the technology for objective pain measurement is not yet ready for use in clinical settings, the potential benefits to patients in improved pain management, combined with the advances being made in sensor technology and artificial intelligence, provide opportunities for research and innovation.
- computer-image analysis
- facial expression
- objective measure
Dawes, T. R., Eden-Green, B., Rosten, C., Giles, J., Governo, R., Marcelline, F., & Nduka, C. (2018). Objectively measuring pain using facial expression: is the technology finally ready? Pain Management. https://doi.org/10.2217/pmt-2017-0049