Quality has been an Education for All (EFA) goal since the 2000 Dakar framework positioned it 'at the heard of education' as a fundamental determinant of student enrolment, retention and achievement. Over the years, classroom pedagogy has been consistently regarded as 'the crucial variable for improving learning outcomes' (eg Hattie, 2009) and is thus seen as critical to reforms aimed at improving educational quality (UNESCO, 2005, p.152). The quality of teacher-pupil classroom interaction remains of central importance, rather research evidence (eg Borich, 1996) suggests that it is the single most important factor accounting for wide variation in the learning attainments of students who have used the same curriculum materials and purportedly experienced similar teaching methods. Other more recent studies (eg Aslam and Kingdon, 2011) have also reported that teacher 'process' variables have a more significant impact on student achievement than standard background characteristics. In the current erea of the 'global learning crisis' (UNESCO, 2014) many developing economies have embarked on major pedagogical reforms. In India, the notion of energising schools and transforming classrooms has received unprecedented attention in the last 15 years. A number of programmes have been introduced in various states to provide meaningful access (Jandhyala and Ramachandran, 2007). The Activity Based Learning (ABL) Programme is one such effort to change the nature of teaching and learning in mainstream classrooms.
Bibliographical note© 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Singal, N., Pedder, D., Malathy, D., Shanmugam, M., Manickavasagam, S., & Govindarasan, M. (2017). Insights from within activity based learning (ABL) classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India: teachers perspectives and practices. International Journal of Educational Development. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.08.001