This paper examines the extent of inequalities in human resource provision at India's Heath Sub-Centres (HSC) - first level of service provision in the public health system. ‘Within state' inequality explained about 71% and ‘between state’ inequality explained the remaining 29% of the overall inter-HSC inequality. The Northern states had a lower health worker share relative to the extent of their HSC provision. Contextual factors that contributed to ‘between’ and ‘within’ district inequalities were the percentages of villages connected with all-weather roads and having primary schools. Analysis demonstrates a policy and programming need to address ‘within State’ inequalities as a priority.