Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring independent, defined mutations in aroA, invA, ssrA, or msbB were assessed for their ability to induce fluid accumulation, tissue damage, and local inflammation in rabbit ileal loops. Three wild-type strains of S. typhimurium, TML, HWSH, and SL1344, and two mutant strains, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB, consistently induced fluid accumulation in the lumen of loops and inflammation of loop-associated tissues. In contrast, three different S. typhimurium aroA strains and an invA mutant of SL1344 did not induce significant fluid accumulation in the rabbit ileal loops. However, the S. typhimurium aroA strains did induce an inflammatory infiltrate and some local villus-associated damage, but the invA mutant did not. Histologically, wild- type S. typhimurium, S. typhimurium SL1344 ssrA, and S. typhimurium SL1344 msbB demonstrated more severe effects on villus architecture than S. typhimurium aroA strains, whereas S. typhimurium invA-infected loops showed no detectable damage. This suggests that villus damage most likely contributes to fluid accumulation within the loop.