Application of the generalised Fully Lagrangian Approach to simulating polydisperse gas-droplet flows

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    In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a generalised Fully Lagrangian Approach to the simulation of polydisperse gas-evaporating droplet flows. The paper focuses on the proposed methodology for modelling the dispersed phase, droplets, in both steady and transient cases. To account for polydispersity, the set of Lagrangian variables is extended to include the droplet size, and the droplet size distribution function is introduced to the droplet parameter set. According to the Lagrangian approach, all the droplet parameters, including the distribution function, are found along the droplet trajectories. An interpolation scheme to convert droplet parameter fields from a Lagrangian to an Eulerian framework for visualising droplet distribution is proposed. The developed methodology was applied to simple 1D and 2D stationary cases for verification, after which it was incorporated into OpenFOAM to simulate steady and periodic flows around a cylinder. In the case of a steady flow, a region devoid of droplets is formed behind the cylinder. From the droplet distribution plots, it was observed that small and medium sized droplets reach a region near to the axis of the symmetry of the flow. In the case of periodic flow, the analysis of droplet distribution is based on instantaneous pictures of the droplet parameters rather than their values along droplet trajectories. In this flow, strongly influenced by vortices, a strong droplet segregation is shown; at various locations one can see a full droplet size spectrum, only small or large droplets, and/or droplets from a narrow size interval. In all cases, the effect of the evaporation is to decrease the maximum value of the droplet distribution function shifted towards smaller-sized droplets.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number103716
    JournalInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
    Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    The authors are grateful to the EPSRC , UK (Grant EP/R012024/1 ) and UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (Grant MR/T043326/1 )UKRI for their financial support, Dr Chris Stafford for useful discussions of the model, and the School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, for access to the School’s High-Performance Cluster.


    • Evaporation
    • OpenFOAM
    • Polydisperse droplets
    • Vortex shedding
    • fully Lagrangian approach


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