Calixarenes and related macrocycles have been shown to have antimicrobial effects since the 1950s. This review highlights the antimicrobial properties of almost 200 calixarenes, resorcinarenes, and pillararenes acting as prodrugs, drug delivery agents, and inhibitors of biofilm formation. A particularly important development in recent years has been the use of macrocycles with substituents terminating in sugars as biofilm inhibitors through their interactions with lectins. Although many examples exist where calixarenes encapsulate, or incorporate, antimicrobial drugs, one of the main factors to emerge is the ability of functionalized macrocycles to engage in multivalent interactions with proteins, and thus inhibit cellular aggregation.
Bibliographical note© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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- School of Applied Sciences - Prof. in Supramolecular Chemistry
- Centre for Precision Health and Translational Medicine
- Applied Chemical Sciences Research and Enterprise Group
- Centre for Lifelong Health