A Tale of Two Protected Areas: “Value and Nature Conservation” in Comparable National Parks in Estonia and Russia

Henri Jarv, Anton Shkaruba, Olga Likhacheva, Viktar Kireyeu, Raymond Ward, Kalev Sepp

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This study explores how local communities reflect on institutional frameworks and protected area governance in two national parks (NPs) with similar nature values in Estonia and Russia, and aims to understand the role of value systems in these interactions. It is based on 50 in-depth interviews with a broad range of stakeholders, and a desktop analysis of relevant regulation and plans. Interview questions reflect on various aspects of well-being (including fairness of governance solutions), awareness of NPs’ function and restrictions, related value aspects, and covered basic personal data needed to interpret the interviews. The study reconfirms the pivotal role of social justice as a driver of wellbeing. In particular, it articulates the significance of value systems playing the role of filters between governance inputs and specific management activities of communities. It underlines the vulnerability of such systems at a community level, most of all to the impacts related to various instances of “centralization”. They are manifested through the choice of restrictive measures and top-down arrangements at the expense of transparency and inclusiveness (in Russia), as well as through the removal of governance autonomy from NPs and transferring monitoring and enforcement functions to local communities without clear mandates or sufficient capacity (in Estonia).
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number274
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Funding: This research was funded by the Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology, financed by the European Union, European Regional Development Fund (Estonian University of Life Sciences ASTRA project “Value-chain based bio-economy”) and by EU ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME, Jean Monnet Projects grant number 587697.

    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

    Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


    • Cultural landscapes
    • Estonia
    • Governance of protected areas
    • Local communities
    • Management of protected areas
    • National parks
    • Post-Soviet
    • Russia
    • Wellbeing


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