3D Printed Electrochemical Sensors

Aya Abdalla, Bhavik Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently emerged as a novel approach
in the development of electrochemical sensors. This approach to fabrication
has provided a tremendous opportunity to make complex geometries of
electrodes at high precision. The most widely used approach for fabrication
is fused deposition modeling; however, other approaches facilitate making
smaller geometries or expanding the range of materials that can be printed.
The generation of complete analytical devices, such as electrochemical
flow cells, provides an example of the array of analytical tools that can be
developed. This review highlights the fabrication, design, preparation, and
applications of 3D printed electrochemical sensors. Such developments
have begun to highlight the vast potential that 3D printed electrochemical
sensors can have compared to other strategies in sensor development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-63
Number of pages17
JournalAnnual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2021


  • 3D printing
  • Biomedical
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Environmental
  • Fused-deposition modeling
  • Stereolithography


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