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Personal profile

Research interests

Ben Sweeting's research is part of the contemporary resurgance of cybernetics and systems thinking amongst designers. His work addresses the relation of architecture and design to questions in ethics, epistemology, and education, and has been pursued through creative, theoretical and historical approaches. Projects have included: theoretical work on the relation between design and ethics; contributions to contemporary cybernetics, addressing its relation to practice; archival research on the collaboration between architect Cedric Price and cybernetician Gordon Pask on the 1960s Fun Palace; practice based research exploring themes such as contingency and place.

Supervisory Interests

Projects that Ben would be interested in supervising include those that relate architecture and design to epistemological, ethical and systemic issues and/or those that use drawing and making actively as part of their research approach.

Scholarly biography

Ben studied architecture at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, and then at the Bartlett, UCL. Ben has taught at Brighton since 2007, first as a visiting lecturer (2007-2008) before being appointed to a lectureship (2009-present). He has previously taught at the University of Greenwich (2010-2012), Kingston University (2008), Central St. Martins (2010-2011) and London South Bank University (2008-2009) and held a research assistant position at The Bartlett, UCL (2006-2007).

Ben teaches in design studio and architectural humanities. He currently serves as Course Leader (2014-present), and has previously held roles as year leader for the second (2011-2016) and third years (2014-2017) of the course.

Ben has led an undergraduate design studio with Alex Arestis (Publica, 2011-2014, 2018-present), Tim Norman (Matavai Bay, 2014-2015) and Sarah Castle (IF_DO, 2015-2016). The work of the studio explores themes of scale, place and the public realm in rural and urban contexts. Settings for projects have included the 'Ancient Towns' of Winchelsea and Rye, the picturesque Sussex village of Alfriston, and the Regency context of London and Brighton (Regent Street; Brighton Pavilion). Students have received recognition from the RIBA, with Ollie Riviere winning the Serjeant Award for Excellence in Drawing, and in Brighton's cross-discipline Nagoya University prize, with honorable mentions for Eve Olsen and Katerina Demetriou.

Ben completed his PhD by architectural design in 2014, supervised by Neil Spiller and Ranulph Glanville at the Bartlett, UCL, and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. This explored epistemological and ethical questions in relation to architecture through ideas from second order cybernetics and radical constructivism and a distinctive approach to drawing. Following this, Ben was appointed as Mellon Researcher at the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal (2014-2016), as part of a collaborative research project. In this work, which was presented at the 2016 Lisbon Architecture Triennale, Ben conducted archival research on Cedric Price and his collaboration with cybernetician Gordon Pask on the influential Fun Palace project. Ben is a member of the American Society for Cybernetics (ASC), the UK Cybernetics Society, and the Systemic Design Association. He was awarded the Heinz von Foerster Award by the ASC in 2014. He has guest edited a number of journal special issues and is a frequent peer reviewer for international conferences and journals.

Approach to teaching

I understand knowledge as something we make - something we create and construct for ourselves, rather than a commodity we passively receive. This is to see knowledge, not just education, as a process, and so in terms of knowing as opposed to knowledge. This is especially evident in design, which is concerned with creating new possibilities rather than with learning how to replicate existing ones. Because we each experience and construct differently, and understand these experiences in different ways, there is always a difference between my understanding and a student's understanding.

As is reflected on in cybernetics (e.g. in Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory), these differences between our understandings do not separate us. Instead they are what make it possible for us to interact and converse with each other. This interaction in turn helps us to learn and to explore. A conversation in design studio is always moving on, driven by the difference between my understanding of the student and their understanding of me (and my understanding of their understanding of me, and so on). We cannot know in advance where it will end up.

Conversation is widely regarded as an educational paradigm because of the way it allows students to actively direct their own learning. In design education there is a tradition of using a conversational format. This includes conversations between tutors and students around a drawing or model (such as those documented by Donald Schön) and also conversations amongst students themselves, whether casually in the studio space or more formally in peer reviews. This is partly because conversation is in itself a powerful way of teaching and learning, but also because the thinking that designers do and the methods they use to support this are themselves conversational. This can be seen in the way that designers explore situations through developing and reflecting on proposals rather than through exhaustive analysis, and also in how core design activities such as sketching can be understood as a conversation that designers hold with themselves via pencil and paper. 

It follows that in design education the content of what is being taught and learnt is similar to the format in which we teach and learn. The conversations that I have with students are not in order to explain what they should do. Rather, it is to help sustain the exploratory conversation that they hold through their own work, playing out the sort of conversational thinking which students gradually learn to carry out for themselves.

Learning through listening - ethical challenges in design

The word conversation literally means to “turn about with”. Originally this has the sense of “living with” and suggests a connection to ethical considerations. We live with each other in conversation, continually turning between the roles of speaking and listening. We live with our ideas as we converse, turning them around as we explore them.

Architects design significant parts of other people’s lives, but often cannot meet, let alone consult, those they design for (consider the future user of a building, or the passer-by). Part of the significance of design’s conversational structure is that through it designers put themselves in place of others and so consider those who cannot be present. This is part of what students learn to do through the conversations they hold with their tutors, each other and invited guests. Tutors play the roles of the other stakeholders that need to be considered (planners, engineers, clients, users, future users, passers-by...). In peer reviews students learn to help others with their projects, as they will in practice.

An important, but sometimes neglected, part of conversation is that of listening. Without listening there’s no conversation to turn around, just two monologues passing by each other. Listening is the creative part of a conversation, both one that is face-to-face and also the sort we hold with ourselves in drawing. When we take our turn to speak in a conversation we usually know what we are going to say. But when we take our turn to listen, what we hear is new to us and we create our own understanding of it. Similarly, when we draw a line we usually know what we are doing in advance. When we take time to look at a drawing, especially when we return to it after a break, we see possibilities in it that we did not intend.

Similarly, in teaching it is important to listen to everything students want to say. As a tutor, you can sometimes say too much in the effort to help. This can get in the way of the student constructing their own explorations and of learning how to do this.

Education/Academic qualification

PhD, University College London

… → 2014

Keywords

  • NA Architecture
  • Cybernetics
  • Ethics
  • Systemic design
  • Radical Constructivism

Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the person's scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher.

cybernetics Social Sciences
constructivism Social Sciences
Cybernetics Arts & Humanities
epistemology Social Sciences
decolonization Social Sciences
research planning Social Sciences
conversation Social Sciences
theater Social Sciences

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Research Output 2007 2018

Applying ethics to itself: Recursive ethical questioning in architecture and second-order cybernetics

Sweeting, R. 14 Jul 2018 (Accepted/In press)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
Questioning
Cybernetics
Discourse
Methodology
Commonplaces

Radical constructivism and the decolonisation of epistemology

Sweeting, B. 15 Jul 2018 13, 3, p. 326 327 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
decolonization
constructivism
epistemology
conversational teaching
curriculum

Wicked problems in design and ethics

Sweeting, B. 2018 (Accepted/In press) Systemic design: theory, methods, and practice. Japan, (Translational Systems Sciences)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Ethical Theory
Discourse
Designer
Guidance

Author's response: Beyond application

Sweeting, B. 1 Nov 2017 New horizons for second-order cybernetics. Riegler, A., Müller, K. H. & Umpleby, S. A. (eds.). Singapore, p. 258-269 12 p. (Series on knots and everything)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

cybernetics
constructivism
field research
research planning
cognition

Cybernetics, virtue ethics and design

Sweeting, B. 14 Dec 2017 Proceedings of relating systems thinking and design (RSD6) 2017 Symposium. Oslo, Norway, p. 0-0 1 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution with ISSN or ISBN

Open Access
File
Virtue Ethics
Cybernetics
Aristotle
Flourishing
Human Life

Activities 2007 2018

American Society for Cybernetics (External organisation)

Sweeting, R. (Member)
2018 → …

Activity: Personal board membership of professional/academic bodies

Cedric and Cybernetics

Sweeting, R. (Invited presenter)
11 Jul 2018

Activity: Invited talk

The Cybernetics Society (External organisation)

Sweeting, R. (Member)
2018 → …

Activity: Membership of professional body

Marks Make Meaning

Sweeting, R. (Participant)
12 Mar 201829 Mar 2018

Activity: Exhibition, performance

Research Development Fund

Sweeting, R. (Reviewer)
2018

Activity: External funding peer-review