Questioning empowerment in community-based tourism in rural Bali

  • Claudia Dolezal

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


The term ‘empowerment’ is used with greater frequency in tourism for development, particularly in the context of community-based tourism (CBT), which is often referred to as a tool to ‘empower’ communities in the initiation, implementation and management of tourism. Still, critical and empirically grounded research on empowerment remains limited, particularly as emerging from social relationships in CBT. These are in many cases regarded as disempowering for community members, such as the tourism encounter and community relationships in cases where they lead to conflicts and jealousy, rather than collaboration. This research analyses these social relationships prevalent in CBT to take them as a potential starting point for social empowerment. Its aim is to locate social spaces of empowerment in CBT by unravelling power relations between the actors involved at local level. In these social spaces of empowerment, the basis of empowerment is generative power, defined as collective power with and power within, based on self-respect, to achieve power to generate positive change and to overcome power over (i.e. dominating power).
Date of AwardJul 2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Brighton

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