Indwelling urethral catheters are the most commonly used medical devices and catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are one of the most common hospital acquired infections. Over 40% of CAUTIs in long-term catheterised patients may be caused by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis. Urease produced by this bacterium generates alkaline conditions by breaking down urea, leading to the formation of dense crystalline biofilm structures on catheter surfaces. This crystalline biofilm makes infections hard to treat and causes the blockage of the catheter lumen, resulting in the retention of infected urine leading to episodes of ascending urinary tract infections.
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