Biomedical markers of response to intravesical bcg treatment in high-grade non-muscle invasive (pta and pt1) transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

  • Samer Jallad

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is the main treatment for bladder high-grade non-muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (HGNMITCC) following initial resection. Unfortunately, about 30% of patients will not respond to treatment and they carry a high risk of disease progression. The alternative, radical cystectomy, has major risks with high morbidity and mortality. The ability to predict the response to BCG treatment would be a useful tool in the selection of appropriate treatment modalities. This study investigated a variety of detectable immune responses in blood and urine to establish if there were differences between responders and non-responders to BCG treatment. We evaluated whether there were detectable immunological differences in blood or urine that could explain or predict outcome.
Date of Award2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Brighton

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