Understanding Sub and Supercritical Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics in Conditions Relevant to Novel Ultra Low Emission Engines

M.Jaya Vignesh Madana Gopal, Giovanni Tretola, Robert Morgan, Guillaume De Sercey, Andrew Atkins, Konstantina Vogiatzaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper we provide insight into the thermophysical properties and the dynamics of cryogenic jets. The motivation of the work is to optimise the use of cryogenic fluids in novel ultra low emission engines. For demonstration, we use conditions relevant to an internal combustion engine currently being developed by Dolphin N2 and the University of Brighton, the CryoPower recuperated split cycle engine (RSCE). The principle of this engine is a split-cycle combustion concept which can use cryogenic injection in the compression cylinder to achieve isothermal compression and thus help maximise the efficiency of the engine. Combined experimental and numerical findings are presented and the effects of atomisation dynamics of the LN2 are explored at both sub- and supercritical conditions in order to cover different pressure and temperature conditions representative of the engine compression cycle. For subcritical regimes, we observe that the appearance of the jet coincides with the predicted atomisation regimes based on theWeber, Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers for other common fluids. For the modelling of supercritical jets, a new methodology within OpenFoam which accounts for Real Fluid Thermodynamics has been developed and the jet behaviour under various pressure and temperature conditions has been investigated. To our knowledge this is the first study where a cryogenic spray process evolution is examined for conditions relevant to the ones prevailing in a compression chamber accounting for both sub and supercritical conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3038
Pages (from-to)1-23
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


  • Advanced internal combustion engines
  • Cryogenic injection and mixing
  • Liquid nitrogen (LN )
  • Real fluids thermodynamics
  • Supercritical


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