Triads in Sustainable Supply-Chain Perspective: Why is a Collaboration Mechanism Needed?

Luai Jraisat, Arvind Upadhyay, Thaana Ghalia, Mohannad Jresseit, Vikas Kumar, David Sarpong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This research explores focal actors and their dyads, addressing their sustainable collaboration in triads and its relevance in the agri-triads that share information along the supply chains. We employ a multiple-case approach and presents two triads through 42 interviews, observation and documentaries. An abductive approach, Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), conceptually guides the analytical iteration stages between theory and data. The findings describe the collaboration mechanisms of focal actors at triad levels and the development of their dyads capabilities for sustainable supply chains. Eight triad approaches emerge in the present research; these are grouped into three aggregated levels according to the intensity of information-sharing between focal and associate actors in each triad. The research has identified six contextual factors that are linked to the TCE dimensions of asset specificity, uncertainty and frequency, and offers key propositions. The research gained insights into how focal actors in dyadic triads choose between the available approaches based on different intensity levels of information-sharing. This research presents a conceptual framework informing the choice of triad approaches reflecting collaboration mechanism strategies, and thus the intensity of information-sharing and sustainability performance. The study elaborates on the application of TCE and extends it empirically to the literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-30
Number of pages30
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 21 May 2021


  • Triads
  • sustainable supply-chain
  • collaboration
  • case studies

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