Triads in sustainable supply-chain perspective: why is a collaboration mechanism needed?

Luai Jraisat, Arvind Upadhyay, Thaana Ghalia, Mohannad Jresseit, Vikas Kumar, David Sarpong

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This research explores focal actors and their dyads, addressing their sustainable collaboration in triads and its relevance in the agri-triads that share information along the supply chains. We employ a multiple-case approach and presents two triads through 42 interviews, observation and documentaries. An abductive approach, Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), conceptually guides the analytical iteration stages between theory and data. The findings describe the collaboration mechanisms of focal actors at triad levels and the development of their dyads capabilities for sustainable supply chains. Eight triad approaches emerge in the present research; these are grouped into three aggregated levels according to the intensity of information-sharing between focal and associate actors in each triad. The research has identified six contextual factors that are linked to the TCE dimensions of asset specificity, uncertainty and frequency, and offers key propositions. The research gained insights into how focal actors in dyadic triads choose between the available approaches based on different intensity levels of information-sharing. This research presents a conceptual framework informing the choice of triad approaches reflecting collaboration mechanism strategies, and thus the intensity of information-sharing and sustainability performance. The study elaborates on the application of TCE and extends it empirically to the literature.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-30
    Number of pages30
    JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    • Triads
    • sustainable supply-chain
    • collaboration
    • case studies
    • interviews


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