Three-Dimensional-Printed Electrochemical Multiwell Plates for Monitoring Food Intolerance from Intestinal Organoids

Emily L. Brooks, Khalil K. Hussain, Khushboo Kotecha, Aya Abdalla, Bhavik Anil Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Common symptoms of food intolerance are caused by chemical components within food that have a pharmacological activity to alter the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Food intolerance is difficult to diagnose as it requires a long-term process of eliminating foods that are responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms. Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are key intestinal epithelium cells that respond to luminal chemical stimulants by releasing 5-HT. Changes in 5-HT levels have been shown to directly alter the motility of the intestinal tract. Therefore, a rapid approach for monitoring the impact of chemicals in food components on 5-HT levels can provide a personalized insight into food intolerance and help stratify diets. Within this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D)-printed electrochemical multiwell plate to determine changes in 5-HT levels from intestinal organoids that were exposed to varying chemical components found in food. The carbon black/poly-lactic acid (CB/PLA) electrodes had a linear range in physiological concentrations of 5-HT (0.1–2 μM) with a limit of detection of 0.07 μM. The electrodes were stable for monitoring 5-HT overflow from intestinal organoids. Using the electrochemical multiwell plate containing intestinal organoids, increases in 5-HT were observed in the presence of 0.1 mM cinnamaldehyde and 10 mM quercetin but reduction in 5-HT levels was observed in 1 mM sorbitol when compared to control. These changes in the presence of chemicals commonly found in food were verified with ex vivo ileum tissue measurements using chromatography and amperometry with boron-doped diamond electrodes. Overall, our 3D electrochemical multiwell plate measurements with intestinal organoids highlight an approach that can be a high-throughput platform technology for rapid screening of food intolerance to provide personalized nutritional diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)712-720
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023


  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Instrumentation
  • Bioengineering


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