The engineering description of chalk: its strength, hardness and density

A.J. Bowden, T.W. Spink, R.N. Mortimore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The description of chalk for engineering purposes is reviewed and recommendations are made for a refined method for the field determination of chalk strength, hardness and density. The proposed method incorporates field descriptions, the current CIRIA intact dry density divisions and the strength terms of BS5930:1999. The recommendations arise from work on chalk tunnels where it was found that the previous methods of field assessment gave unreliable results. Specific fieldwork was carried out to develop the proposed system on a wide range of Middle and Upper white chalks in southern England.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-361
Number of pages7
JournalQuarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • chalk
  • engineering description
  • strength
  • hardness
  • intact dry density


Dive into the research topics of 'The engineering description of chalk: its strength, hardness and density'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this