Abstract
This paper presents the first empirical investigation that compares Euler and linear diagrams when they are used to represent set cardinality. A common approach is to use areaproportional Euler diagrams but linear diagrams can exploit lengthproportional straightlines for the same purpose. Another common approach is to use numerical annotations. We first conducted two empirical studies, one on Euler diagrams and the other on linear diagrams. These suggest that areaproportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations and lengthproportional linear diagrams without numerical annotations support significantly better task performance. We then conducted a third study to investigate which of these two notations should be used in practice. This suggests that areaproportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations most effectively supports task performance and so should be used to visualize set cardinalities. However, these studies focused on data that can be visualized reasonably accurately using circles and the results should be taken as valid
within that context. Future work needs to determine whether the results generalize both to when circles cannot be used and for other ways of encoding cardinality information.
within that context. Future work needs to determine whether the results generalize both to when circles cannot be used and for other ways of encoding cardinality information.
Original language  English 

Article number  e0211234 
Journal  PLoS ONE 
Volume  14 
Issue number  3 
DOIs  
Publication status  Published  28 Mar 2019 
Bibliographical note
© 2019 Stapleton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Fingerprint
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Anestis Touloumis
 School of Arch, Tech and Eng  Principal Lecturer
 Mathematical Sciences Research and Enterprise Group
Person: Academic