The effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures in the offspring

an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis

Mariam Vahdaninia, Heather Mackenzie, Taraneh Dean, Suzannah Helps

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background:
The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy
on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence.
Objective:
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies,
was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI,
body weight, fat mass in offspring.
Methods:
Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE,
SCOPUS, WHO’s International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated
using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool.
Results:
Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supple-
mentation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were heterogeneities between the
trials in terms of their sample, type and duration of intervention and follow-up. Pooled estimates did not show an association
between prenatal intake of fatty acids and obesity measures in offspring.
Conclusion:
These results indicate that maternal supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy does not have a ben-
eficial effect on obesity risk. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies along with small sample sizes and high rates of
attrition, the effects of ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of childhood obesity in the long-term
remains unclear. Large high-quality RCTs are needed that are designed specifically to examine the effect of prenatal intake
of fatty acids for prevention of childhood obesity. There is also a need to determine specific sub-groups in the population
that might get a greater benefit and whether different ω-3 LCPUFA, i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. docosahexanoic (DHA)
acids might potentially have different effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Meta-Analysis
Obesity
Pregnancy
Randomized Controlled Trials
Pediatric Obesity
Fatty Acids
Mothers
Population Groups
MEDLINE
Sample Size
Fats
Body Weight
Clinical Trials
Databases
Acids

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Keywords

  • Systematic review
  • fatty acids
  • Growth

Cite this

@article{8ad897f944d6476c83d003cc6277c360,
title = "The effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures in the offspring: an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "Background:The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence.Objective:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI, body weight, fat mass in offspring.Methods:Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WHO’s International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool.Results:Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supple-mentation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were heterogeneities between the trials in terms of their sample, type and duration of intervention and follow-up. Pooled estimates did not show an association between prenatal intake of fatty acids and obesity measures in offspring.Conclusion:These results indicate that maternal supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy does not have a ben-eficial effect on obesity risk. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies along with small sample sizes and high rates of attrition, the effects of ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of childhood obesity in the long-term remains unclear. Large high-quality RCTs are needed that are designed specifically to examine the effect of prenatal intake of fatty acids for prevention of childhood obesity. There is also a need to determine specific sub-groups in the population that might get a greater benefit and whether different ω-3 LCPUFA, i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. docosahexanoic (DHA) acids might potentially have different effects.",
keywords = "Systematic review, fatty acids, Growth",
author = "Mariam Vahdaninia and Heather Mackenzie and Taraneh Dean and Suzannah Helps",
note = "{\circledC} The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-018-1824-9",
language = "English",
pages = "1--17",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
publisher = "Springer",

}

The effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures in the offspring : an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis. / Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mackenzie, Heather; Dean, Taraneh; Helps, Suzannah.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, 24.09.2018, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effectiveness of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures in the offspring

T2 - an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Vahdaninia, Mariam

AU - Mackenzie, Heather

AU - Dean, Taraneh

AU - Helps, Suzannah

N1 - © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

PY - 2018/9/24

Y1 - 2018/9/24

N2 - Background:The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence.Objective:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI, body weight, fat mass in offspring.Methods:Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WHO’s International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool.Results:Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supple-mentation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were heterogeneities between the trials in terms of their sample, type and duration of intervention and follow-up. Pooled estimates did not show an association between prenatal intake of fatty acids and obesity measures in offspring.Conclusion:These results indicate that maternal supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy does not have a ben-eficial effect on obesity risk. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies along with small sample sizes and high rates of attrition, the effects of ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of childhood obesity in the long-term remains unclear. Large high-quality RCTs are needed that are designed specifically to examine the effect of prenatal intake of fatty acids for prevention of childhood obesity. There is also a need to determine specific sub-groups in the population that might get a greater benefit and whether different ω-3 LCPUFA, i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. docosahexanoic (DHA) acids might potentially have different effects.

AB - Background:The potential role of ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent risk of obesity outcomes in the offspring is not clear and there is a need to synthesise this evidence.Objective:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including the most recent studies, was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA interventions during pregnancy on obesity measures, e.g. BMI, body weight, fat mass in offspring.Methods:Included RCTs had a minimum of 1-month follow-up post-partum. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WHO’s International Clinical Trials Reg., E-theses and Web of Science databases. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool.Results:Eleven RCTs, from ten unique trials, (3644 children) examined the effectiveness of ω-3 LCPUFA maternal supple-mentation during pregnancy on the development of obesity outcomes in offspring. There were heterogeneities between the trials in terms of their sample, type and duration of intervention and follow-up. Pooled estimates did not show an association between prenatal intake of fatty acids and obesity measures in offspring.Conclusion:These results indicate that maternal supplementation with ω-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy does not have a ben-eficial effect on obesity risk. Due to the high heterogeneity between studies along with small sample sizes and high rates of attrition, the effects of ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of childhood obesity in the long-term remains unclear. Large high-quality RCTs are needed that are designed specifically to examine the effect of prenatal intake of fatty acids for prevention of childhood obesity. There is also a need to determine specific sub-groups in the population that might get a greater benefit and whether different ω-3 LCPUFA, i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. docosahexanoic (DHA) acids might potentially have different effects.

KW - Systematic review

KW - fatty acids

KW - Growth

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-018-1824-9

DO - 10.1007/s00394-018-1824-9

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 17

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

ER -