A stochastic implementation of the multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) model has been used for the modelling of turbulence–chemistry interactions in a series of turbulent jet diffusion flames with varying degrees of local extinction (Sandia Flames D–F). The mapping function approximates the cumulative probability distribution of mixture fraction and the corresponding variance can be controlled by a standard implementation of the scalar mixing timescale. The conditional fluctuations are controlled by a minor dissipation timescale, τmin. The results show a clear dependence of the conditional fluctuations on the choice of the minor timescale, and the appropriate value for turbulent jet flames is similar to values determined in related direct numerical simulation (DNS) studies of homogeneous turbulent reacting flows. The predictions of means and variances of temperature and species mass fractions are very good for all flames, indicating an appropriate modelling of the conditional variances. Further sensitivity studies with respect to particle number density demonstrate a relative insensitivity of the results to the particle number in the numerical solution procedure. Good results can be obtained with as few as 10 particles per cell, allowing for a computationally inexpensive implementation of a Monte Carlo/probability density function (PDF) method.
Straub, C., De, S., Kronenburg, A., & Vogiatzaki, K. (2016). The effect of timescale variation in multiple mapping conditioning mixing of PDF calculations for Sandia Flame series D–F. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 20(5), 894-912. https://doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2016.1191677