Superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and cytokine combinations all cause functional impairment and morphological changes in rat islets of Langerhans and insulin secreting cell lines, but dictate cell death by different mechanisms

M.A. Di Matteo, A.C. Loweth, S. Thomas, Jon Mabley, N.G. Morgan, J. Thorpe, I.C. Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We have shown that nitric oxide treatment for 30-90 min causes inhibition of insulin secretion, DNA damage and disturbs sub-cellular organization in rat and human islets of Langerhans and HIT-T15 cells. Here rat islets and beta-cell lines were treated with various free radical generating systems S-nitrosoglutathione (nitric oxide), xanthine oxidase plus hypoxanthine (reactive oxygen species), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (nitric oxide, super-oxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide) and peroxynitrite and their effects over 4 h to 3 days compared with those of the cytokine combination interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. End points examined were de novo protein synthesis, cellular reducing capacity, morphological changes and apoptosis by acridine orange cytochemistry, DNA gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Treatment (24-72 h) with nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite or combined cytokines differentially decreased redox function and inhibited protein synthesis in rat islets of Langerhans and in insulin-containing cell lines; cytokine effects were arginine and nitric oxide dependent. Peroxynitrite gave rare apoptosis in HIT-T15 cells and superoxide gave none in any cell type, but caused the most beta cell-specific damage in islets. S-nitroso-glutathione was the most effective agent at causing DNA laddering or chromatin margination characteristic of apoptotic cell death in insulin-containing cells. Cytokine-induced apoptosis was observed specifically in islet beta cells, combined cytokine effects on islet function and death most resembled those of the mixed radical donor SIN-1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-177
Number of pages14
JournalApoptosis
Volume2
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 1997

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • beta cells
  • cytokines
  • Islets of Langerhans
  • nitric oxide
  • peroxynitrite
  • superoxide

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