Spray Characteristics and Droplet Micro-Explosion of Water in Diesel Emulsion

Mhadi A. Ismael, A. Rashid A. Aziza, Morgan Heikal, Cyril Crua, Ezrann Z.A. Zainal, Salah E. Mohammed, Zuhib Nisar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBNpeer-review


This paper highlights the potential usefulness of water-in-diesel emulsions when exposed to high-temperature, thereby improving the air–fuel mixing process utilising micro-explosion resulting from multi-component fuel combustion.Although the high injection pressure significantly affects the spray characteristics and fuel mixing process, observation of micro-explosion in the spray is rarely addressed.In this study, an emulsion made with 5%, 10%, and 15% of water by volume is investigated at different injection pressure (500, 750 and 1000 bar).The experiments are conducted in a constant volume chamber under evaporative conditions.A high-speed camera coupled with a long-distance microscope was used to magnify and visualise the spray droplets micro-explosion in the spray.The raw images of spray were then analysed using a purpose-built image processing algorithm to identify both spray penetration length and dispersion angle.Our measurements indicated that the differences in water content (10 and 15%w) suggest an increase in both spray penetration length and cone angle due to fuel evaporation and micro-explosion.Furthermore, the spray breakup enhances with the increase in water content.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICPER 2020
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 7th International Conference on Production, Energy and Reliability
EditorsFaiz Ahmad, Hussain H. Al-Kayiem, William Pao King Soon
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9789811919381
Publication statusPublished - 4 Oct 2022
Event7th International Conference on Production, Energy and Reliability, ICPER 2020 - Kuching, Malaysia
Duration: 14 Jul 202016 Jul 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print)2195-4356
ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


Conference7th International Conference on Production, Energy and Reliability, ICPER 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the support given by Universiti Teknologi Petronas to the Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility in performing this research. The research was supported by PETRONAS Company Grant [YUTP_015LC0-133].


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