Two samples of 227 and 214 adults completed surveys of social support, perceived risk of COVID-19 and COVID-19 preventive activity – in Study 1 likelihood of testing was examined and in Study 2 likelihood of both testing and vaccination were examined during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Path analysis showed, in Study 1, that access to help (as an indicator of social support) had a direct effect on likelihood of testing and indirect effects through self-efficacy, perceived risk and preventive behavior; and, in Study 2, that neighborhood identification (as an indicator of social support) had a direct effect on likelihood of testing and indirect effects on likelihood of both testing and vaccination through the mediators of strength of social network, loneliness, perceived risk of COVID-19, and preventive activity. Both studies suggest that level of social support (conceptualized in different ways) is an important determinant of COVID-19 testing and Study 2 shows it is also a determinant of likelihood of vaccination. As resurgences of COVID-19 occur, it will be necessary to monitor the likelihood of COVID-19 testing and vaccination behaviors and, especially, to promote confidence in the latter in individuals with decreased access to social support.
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Studies 1 and 2 received funding from Nottingham Trent University and Wandsworth Borough Council, respectively.
© 2021, The Author(s).
- Perceived risk
- Social support