Short-term heat acclimation prior to a multi-day desert ultra-marathon improves physiological and psychological responses without compromising immune status

Ashley Willmott, Mark Hayes, Kirsty Waldock, Rebecca Relf, Emily Watkins, Carl James, Oliver Gibson, Nicholas Smeeton, Alan Richardson, Peter Watt, Neil Maxwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Multi-stage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate a-priori thermal adaptation, often achieved through heat acclimation (HA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to short-term HA (STHA) in athletes preparing for the Marathon des Sables. Methods Eight ultra-endurance athletes (age; 42±4 yrs, mass; 81.9±15.0 kg and body fat; 17.6±5.9%) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day -1, 45°C and 30% relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post session 1 and 4. Results STHA improved peak thermal comfort (-1,P=0.02), sensation (-1,P=0.03) and perceived exertion (-2,P=0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptions of fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived physical (-6,P=0.04) and general (-2,P=0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P>0.05), however, sweat rate increased 14% (P=0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P>0.05). Conclusions Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations and lower feelings of fatigue, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater and prolonged physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2249-2256
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Volume35
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2016

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deserts
acclimation
heat
athletes
heat stress
sweat
leukocyte count
physiological response
body fat
fever
relative humidity
immune response
methodology

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Sports Sciences on 09/12/2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/02640414.2016.1265142

Keywords

  • Short-term heat acclimation
  • heat stress
  • perceived fatigue
  • thermoregulation
  • ultra-endurance

Cite this

@article{235552b341eb4fecbd717de0962f9570,
title = "Short-term heat acclimation prior to a multi-day desert ultra-marathon improves physiological and psychological responses without compromising immune status",
abstract = "Multi-stage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate a-priori thermal adaptation, often achieved through heat acclimation (HA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to short-term HA (STHA) in athletes preparing for the Marathon des Sables. Methods Eight ultra-endurance athletes (age; 42±4 yrs, mass; 81.9±15.0 kg and body fat; 17.6±5.9{\%}) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day -1, 45°C and 30{\%} relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post session 1 and 4. Results STHA improved peak thermal comfort (-1,P=0.02), sensation (-1,P=0.03) and perceived exertion (-2,P=0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptions of fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived physical (-6,P=0.04) and general (-2,P=0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P>0.05), however, sweat rate increased 14{\%} (P=0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P>0.05). Conclusions Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations and lower feelings of fatigue, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater and prolonged physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.",
keywords = "Short-term heat acclimation, heat stress, perceived fatigue, thermoregulation, ultra-endurance",
author = "Ashley Willmott and Mark Hayes and Kirsty Waldock and Rebecca Relf and Emily Watkins and Carl James and Oliver Gibson and Nicholas Smeeton and Alan Richardson and Peter Watt and Neil Maxwell",
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Short-term heat acclimation prior to a multi-day desert ultra-marathon improves physiological and psychological responses without compromising immune status. / Willmott, Ashley; Hayes, Mark; Waldock, Kirsty; Relf, Rebecca; Watkins, Emily; James, Carl; Gibson, Oliver; Smeeton, Nicholas; Richardson, Alan; Watt, Peter; Maxwell, Neil.

In: Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 22, 09.12.2016, p. 2249-2256.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Short-term heat acclimation prior to a multi-day desert ultra-marathon improves physiological and psychological responses without compromising immune status

AU - Willmott, Ashley

AU - Hayes, Mark

AU - Waldock, Kirsty

AU - Relf, Rebecca

AU - Watkins, Emily

AU - James, Carl

AU - Gibson, Oliver

AU - Smeeton, Nicholas

AU - Richardson, Alan

AU - Watt, Peter

AU - Maxwell, Neil

N1 - This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Sports Sciences on 09/12/2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/02640414.2016.1265142

PY - 2016/12/9

Y1 - 2016/12/9

N2 - Multi-stage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate a-priori thermal adaptation, often achieved through heat acclimation (HA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to short-term HA (STHA) in athletes preparing for the Marathon des Sables. Methods Eight ultra-endurance athletes (age; 42±4 yrs, mass; 81.9±15.0 kg and body fat; 17.6±5.9%) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day -1, 45°C and 30% relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post session 1 and 4. Results STHA improved peak thermal comfort (-1,P=0.02), sensation (-1,P=0.03) and perceived exertion (-2,P=0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptions of fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived physical (-6,P=0.04) and general (-2,P=0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P>0.05), however, sweat rate increased 14% (P=0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P>0.05). Conclusions Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations and lower feelings of fatigue, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater and prolonged physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.

AB - Multi-stage, ultra-endurance events in hot, humid conditions necessitate a-priori thermal adaptation, often achieved through heat acclimation (HA), to improve performance by reducing thermoregulatory strain and perceptions of heat stress. This study investigated the physiological, perceptual and immunological responses to short-term HA (STHA) in athletes preparing for the Marathon des Sables. Methods Eight ultra-endurance athletes (age; 42±4 yrs, mass; 81.9±15.0 kg and body fat; 17.6±5.9%) completed 4 days of controlled hyperthermia STHA (60 min·day -1, 45°C and 30% relative humidity). Pre, during and post sessions, physiological and perceptual measures were recorded. Immunological measures were recorded pre-post session 1 and 4. Results STHA improved peak thermal comfort (-1,P=0.02), sensation (-1,P=0.03) and perceived exertion (-2,P=0.04). A dissociated relationship between perceptions of fatigue and Tre was evident after STHA, with reductions in perceived physical (-6,P=0.04) and general (-2,P=0.04) fatigue. Exercising Tre and HR did not change (P>0.05), however, sweat rate increased 14% (P=0.02). No changes were found in white blood cell counts or content (P>0.05). Conclusions Four days of STHA facilitates effective perceptual adaptations and lower feelings of fatigue, without compromising immune status prior to an ultra-endurance race in heat stress. A greater and prolonged physiological strain is required to confer optimal physiological adaptations.

KW - Short-term heat acclimation

KW - heat stress

KW - perceived fatigue

KW - thermoregulation

KW - ultra-endurance

U2 - 10.1080/02640414.2016.1265142

DO - 10.1080/02640414.2016.1265142

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 2249

EP - 2256

JO - Journal of Sports Sciences

JF - Journal of Sports Sciences

SN - 0264-0414

IS - 22

ER -