Self-efficacy, an individual’s belief in his or her capabilities to perform a given behaviour (Bandura, 1997: Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman), has been shown to have a significant influence on athletes’ performance. Given this, it is necessary to identify antecedents that may aid in enhancing positive self-efficacy perceptions among athletes. Previous research, albeit scarce, has been successful in demonstrating that the manner in which athletes ascribe causes to outcomes will impact upon their future efficacy expectations (e.g. Bond et al., 2001: International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 243–256; Gernigon & Delloye, 2003: The Sport Psychologist, 17, 55–76). However, the specific attributional dimensions implicated in the relationship has varied considerably. The aim of this study was to shed further light on the exact nature of the relationship between athletes’ causal thinking and their future efficacy perceptions. Specifically, it was hypothesized that following successful events, athletes who made more internal, stable and controllable attributions would show an increase in their self-efficacy perceptions post competition. In contrast, following unsuccessful performances, it was hypothesized that attributions to internal, stable and uncontrollable factors would accompany a decrease in athletes’ efficacy perceptions.