A non-invasive, real-time acoustic method for the monitoring of cellular integration within commercial collagen-based dermal replacement scaffolds is reported for the first time. An unexpectedly high degree of acoustic energy transfer through heavily hydrated thick film (up to 0.5 mm) sections of collagen/glycosaminoglycan scaffold material intimately associated with a quartz crystal sensor allowed quantitative resonant frequency measurements upon application of fibroblast cell suspensions to the material. Changes in resonant frequency and energy dissipation were commensurate with cellular interaction with the gel.
Pavey, K. D., James, S., James, S. E., Mikhalovska, L., Tomlins, P., Paul, F., & Mikhalovsky, S. (2003). Real-time monitoring of cellular integration within bulk soft tissue scaffold materials. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 13(4), 654-656. https://doi.org/10.1039/b300989k