In the last decade, the chemistry of meroterpenoids—conjugated molecules formed from isoprenyl fragments through biosynthetic pathways—has developed rapidly. The class includes some natural metabolites and fully synthetic fragments formed through nonbiological synthesis. In the field of synthetic receptors, a range of structures can be achieved by combining fragments of different classes of organic compounds into one hybrid macrocyclic platform which retains the properties of these fragments. This review discusses the successes in the synthesis and practical application of both natural and synthetic macrocycles. Among the natural macrocyclic meroterpenoids, special attention is paid to isoprenylated flavonoids and phenols, isoprenoid lipids, prenylated amino acids and alkaloids, and isoprenylpolyketides. Among the synthetic macrocyclic meroterpenoids obtained by combining the “classical” macrocyclic platforms, those based on cyclodextrins, together with meta-and paracyclophanes incorporating terpenoid fragments, and meroterpenoids obtained by macrocyclization of several terpene derivatives are considered. In addition, issues related to biomedical activity, processes of self-association and aggregation, and the formation of host–guest complexes of various classes of macrocyclic merotenoids are discussed in detail.
- Host–guest systems
- Macrocyclic systems