The development of diagrammatic logics is stronglymotivated by the desire to make formal reasoning accessible tobroad audiences. One major research problem, for which surprisinglylittle progress has been made, is to understand how to choosebetween semantically equivalentdiagrams from the perspective of human cognition. The particularfocus of this paper is on choosing between diagrams that representeither the presence or absence of individuals.To understand how to best make this choice, we conducted anempirical study. We found thatrepresenting the presence of individuals supported taskperformance either significantly better than, or no worse than,representing the absence of individuals. The particularly strikingfeature of our results was that representing the absence ofindividuals in a way that makes the diagram highly cluttered isdetrimental to human cognition. As a result, diagrams with thisfeature should be avoided, but diagrams using presence(irrespective of diagram clutter) or low-cluttered absence can beused to support cognition in the context of the tasks performed inour study.
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- Diagrammatic logics