Preparticipation medical evaluation for elite athletes: EFSMA recommendations on standardised preparticipation evaluation form in European countries

Anca Mirela Ionescu, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Sandra Rozenstoka, Xavier Bigard, Herbert Löllgen, Norbert Bachl, Andre Debruyne, Fabio Pigozzi, Maurizio Casasco, Anna Jegier, Alina Maria Smaranda, Adela Caramoci, Theodora Papadopoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sports medicine is a medical specialty that supports the performance of professional and amateur athletes while maintaining their health. Sports medicine professionals need to ensure the safe participation of athletes in sports activities achieved through a periodical preparticipation evaluation (PPE) and a regular medical monitoring of the athletes' health in accordance with the latest recommendations regarding health condition and medical history, physical working capacity, training period and programme, recovery, nutrition, use of supplements, injuries prevention and safe return to play. In order to harmonise these national variations in the content and application of the PPE, the EFSMA Scientific and Educational Commission proposes a 'gold standard' for elite athletes across Europe. Important objectives of PPE are early detection and prevention of severe complications during sports activities both in leisure time and competitive sports. The PPE should entail the following diagnostic components: health status, anthropometry, functional and exercise capacity. It is of utmost importance to develop and implement preventive strategies such as the PPE. Besides monitoring the health status of athletes, the PPE plays an important role in the selection process, bringing valuable information for coaches and supporting a personalised treatment approach. Screening of athletes through a standardised digital PPE could be beneficial for a better understanding of the impact of long-term physical activity. Furthermore, PPE leads the scientific community to a way of working closer together in the interest of the athletes.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere001178
Pages (from-to)e001178
JournalBMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • exercise testing
  • prevention
  • cardiology prevention
  • sports & exercise medicine
  • position statement
  • Prevention
  • Cardiology prevention
  • Exercise testing
  • Sports & exercise medicine
  • Position statement


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