Positive resolution of the wound-healing response in lens epithelial cells by Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene coatings for use in accommodative intraocular lens devices

Grace Cooksley, Marcus K Dymond, Nicolas A Stewart, Giselda Bucca, Andrew Hesketh, Joseph Lacey, Yury Gogotsi, Susan Sandeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Abstract: Cataract surgery removes the diseased lens of the eye replacing it with an intraocular lens, restoring visual acuity. However, accommodation, the lens’ ability to provide dynamic change in focus, is lost. A number of accommodative intraocular lens (AIOL) designs have been considered although none have provided a truly effective clinical AIOL. Two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2T x ) MXene has been used as a transparent conductive electrode within an AIOL feasibility study. Nevertheless, the potential for Ti3C2T x to repress excessive inflammation and promote wound healing following cataract surgery has not been considered. Cataract surgery can trigger chronic inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in residual lens epithelial cells (LECs), producing a fibrotic mass across the posterior capsule known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). With a large surface area and capacity for surface functionalisation, MXene has properties enabling a dual purpose AIOL design with an additional therapeutic role in the repression of pathways leading to PCO development. In this study, Ti3C2T x MXene was investigated to determine its impact on pathways leading to chronic inflammation and EMT using an in vitro LECs model. Ti3C2T x MXene was synthesised and characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in markers linked to inflammation and EMT in Ti3C2T x -treated LECs were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, scratch assay, RNA sequencing for whole-cell gene expression profiling and lipidomics analysis. Ti3C2T x significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by interleukin 1 beta primed LECs and did not advocate EMT, promoting a positive resolution of the wound healing response. This study supports the role of Ti3C2T x within an AIOL design with the potential to repress key developmental pathways leading to PCO.
Original languageEnglish
Article number014003
Number of pages15
Journal2D Materials
Volume10
Issue number1
Early online date19 Oct 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by University of Brighton Scholarship with the Doctoral Training Alliance Bioscience Programme (G2059). The authors would like to acknowledge the Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Devices (G2434) and Centre for Stress and Age-Related Diseases (G2435) for providing the funding for the genomics analysis and the University of Brighton Genomics Facility for completing this analysis. The authors would like to thank Mohamed Alhabeb and Tyler Mathis for providing MAX phase and performing SEM characterisation at the Core Research Facilities (CRF) at Drexel University. The authors would like to thank Jon Salvage at the School of Applied Sciences at University of Brighton for performing additional SEM analysis. The authors would also like to thank Emma Ward for their valuable contribution.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by University of Brighton Scholarship with the Doctoral Training Alliance Bioscience Programme (G2059). The authors would like to acknowledge the Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Devices (G2434) and Centre for Stress and Age-Related Diseases (G2435) for providing the funding for the genomics analysis and the University of Brighton Genomics Facility for completing this analysis. The authors would like to thank Mohamed Alhabeb and Tyler Mathis for providing MAX phase and performing SEM characterisation at the Core Research Facilities (CRF) at Drexel University. The authors would like to thank Jon Salvage at the School of Applied Sciences at University of Brighton for performing additional SEM analysis. The authors would also like to thank Emma Ward for their valuable contribution.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Keywords

  • Paper
  • Focus on MXenes
  • titanium carbide
  • MXene
  • posterior capsule opacification
  • intraocular lenses
  • inflammation
  • wound-healing response

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