The “Direct Numerical Simulations” (DNS) of droplet impact processes is of great interest and importance for a variety of industrial applications, where laboratory experiments might be difficult, costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, in most cases after validated against experimental data, they can be utilised to further explain the experimental measurements or to extend the experimental runs by performing “virtual” numerical experiments. In such “DNS” calculations of the dynamic topology of the interface between the liquid and gas phase, the selected dynamic contact angle treatment is a key parameter for the accurate prediction of the droplet dynamics. In the present paper, droplet impact phenomena on smooth, dry surfaces are simulated using three different contact angle treatments. For this purpose, an enhanced VOF-based model, that accounts for spurious currents reduction, which has been previously implemented in OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox, is utilised and further enhanced. Apart from the already implemented constant and dynamic contact angle treatments in OpenFOAM, the dynamic contact angle model of Kistler, that considers the maximum advancing and minimum receding contact angles, is implemented in the code. The enhanced VOF model predictions are initially compared with literature available experimental data of droplets impacting on smooth surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The constant contact angle treatment of OpenFOAM as well as the Kistler’s implementation show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results up to the point of maximum spreading, when the spreading is inertia dominated. However, only Kistler’s model succeeds to accurately predict both the advancing and the recoiling phase of the droplet impact, for a variety of surface wettability characteristics. The dynamic contact angle treatment fails to predict almost all stages of the droplet impact. The optimum version of the model is then applied for 2 additional series of parametric numerical simulations that identify and quantify the effects of surface tension and viscosity, in the droplet impact dynamics.
|Title of host publication||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems|
|Place of Publication||Valencia, Spain|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Sept 2017|
|Event||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems - 6-8 September 2017, Valencia, Spain|
Duration: 6 Sept 2017 → …
|Conference||ILASS–Europe 2017, 28th Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems|
|Period||6/09/17 → …|
Bibliographical noteThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
- Droplet impact
- dynamic contact angle treatment