Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with neurotrophin were used to regulate the differentiation and survival of neurons. Neurotrophin (nerve growth factor [NGF] or brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) was covalently bound to CNTs modified by amino groups using a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) reagent. The CNTs coated with NGF or BDNF promoted the neurite outgrowths of neurons in the same manner as soluble NGF and soluble BDNF. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we demonstrated that neurotrophin-coated CNTs carry neurotrophin. These results suggest that neurotrophin-coated CNTs have biological activity and stimulate the neurite outgrowths of neurons.