MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate

A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney

Fayan Meng, Mykola Seredych, Chi Chen, Victor Gura, Sergey Mikahlovsky, Susan Sandeman, Ganesh Ingavle, Tochukwu Ozulumba, Ling Miao, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as –OH, –O–, and –F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 ºC, we achieved a twofold increase in the urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce metabolising cell fraction indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.
Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Nano
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sep 2018

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Dialysis Solutions
Sorbents
Urea
Adsorption
Dialysis
Biocompatibility
Cells
Apoptosis
Chemical analysis

Bibliographical note

This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Nano, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited
and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.8b06494, see
http://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/articlesonrequest/index.html].

Keywords

  • urea
  • adsorption
  • dialysate
  • wearable artificial kidney
  • MXenes
  • 2D materials

Cite this

Meng, Fayan ; Seredych, Mykola ; Chen, Chi ; Gura, Victor ; Mikahlovsky, Sergey ; Sandeman, Susan ; Ingavle, Ganesh ; Ozulumba, Tochukwu ; Miao, Ling ; Anasori, Babak ; Gogotsi, Yury. / MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate : A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney. In: ACS Nano. 2018.
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abstract = "The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as –OH, –O–, and –F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99{\%} removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94{\%} from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 ºC, we achieved a twofold increase in the urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce metabolising cell fraction indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.",
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Meng, F, Seredych, M, Chen, C, Gura, V, Mikahlovsky, S, Sandeman, S, Ingavle, G, Ozulumba, T, Miao, L, Anasori, B & Gogotsi, Y 2018, 'MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate: A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney', ACS Nano. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b06494

MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate : A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney. / Meng, Fayan ; Seredych, Mykola; Chen, Chi; Gura, Victor; Mikahlovsky, Sergey; Sandeman, Susan; Ingavle, Ganesh; Ozulumba, Tochukwu; Miao, Ling; Anasori, Babak; Gogotsi, Yury.

In: ACS Nano, 26.09.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Meng, Fayan

AU - Seredych, Mykola

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AU - Gura, Victor

AU - Mikahlovsky, Sergey

AU - Sandeman, Susan

AU - Ingavle, Ganesh

AU - Ozulumba, Tochukwu

AU - Miao, Ling

AU - Anasori, Babak

AU - Gogotsi, Yury

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N2 - The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as –OH, –O–, and –F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 ºC, we achieved a twofold increase in the urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce metabolising cell fraction indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.

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