MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate: A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney

Fayan Meng, Mykola Seredych, Chi Chen, Victor Gura, Sergey Mikahlovsky, Susan Sandeman, Ganesh Ingavle, Tochukwu Ozulumba, Ling Miao, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as –OH, –O–, and –F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 ºC, we achieved a twofold increase in the urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce metabolising cell fraction indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10518-10528
JournalACS Nano
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sept 2018

Bibliographical note

This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Nano, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited
and published work see, see].


  • urea
  • adsorption
  • dialysate
  • wearable artificial kidney
  • MXenes
  • 2D materials


Dive into the research topics of 'MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate: A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this