The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2Tx, where Tx represents surface termination groups such as –OH, –O–, and –F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 ºC, we achieved a twofold increase in the urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2Tx showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce metabolising cell fraction indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2Tx and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.
Bibliographical noteThis document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in ACS Nano, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited
and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.8b06494, see
- wearable artificial kidney
- 2D materials
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- School of Applied Sciences - Reader
- University of Brighton - Dir. of Doctoral Studies Res and Sup Dev
- Biomaterials and Drug Delivery Research and Enterprise Group
- Centre for Stress and Age-Related Disease
- Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Devices