We have studied the blood clearance and reticuloendothelial organ distribution of intravenously injected neutral (egg phosphatidylcholine, egg PC/cholesterol, mol ratio 7:2), anionic (egg PC/cholesterol/dicetylphosphate, mol ratio 7:2:1), and cationic (egg PC/cholesterol/stearylamine, mol ratio 7:2:1) liposomes of approximately the same size distribution in mice 3 days after treatment with the synthetic oestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male mice administered DES intraperitoneally at a dose of 1 mg per mouse (body weight 22–25 g) manifested an increase in the vascular clearance rate of liposomes irrespective of the initial vesicle surface charge. The enhancement in the vascular clearance of liposomes in DES-treated animals was associated with a concomitant increase in liver weight as well as hepatic phagocytosis. However, DES treatment significantly enhanced the hepatic sequestration (on the basis of % of injected dose of liposomes per g of liver tissue) of positively charged liposomes when compared to both neutral and negatively charged vesicles of similar size distribution. This observation was also confirmed by the ‘hepatic-blockade’ experiments where blockade was induced by prior intravenous injection of liposomes of the same size distribution and charge to that of test vesicles. The in vitro cell suspension studies suggested that the enhanced liposome uptake (irrespective of the initial vesicle surface charge) by Kupffer cells of DES-treated mice was independent of changes in the blood opsonization processes. Furthermore, in vitro studies also showed the operation of multiple mechanisms and involvement of different populations of liver macrophages (resident and recruited cells) in liposome recognition following DES treatment. For example, in DES-treated animals, the newly recruited liver macrophages were found to play a major role in the clearance of stearylamine incorporated liposomes via complement receptors (Mac-1). The resident Kupffer cells seem to recognize cationic vesicles via other receptors as the expression of Mac-1 is virtually absent in these cells. On the other hand, complement receptors seem to play a minor role in the uptake of anionic DCP vesicles by hepatic macrophages of DES-treated mice. DES appears to offer a new approach in dissecting the mechanisms of liposome-macrophage interaction.
- Complement receptors
- Kupffer cells
- Reticuloendothelial system
- Sex hormones
Moghimi, S. M., & Patel, H. M. (2002). Modulation of murine liver macrophage clearance of liposomes by diethylstilbestrol. The effect of vesicle surface charge and a role for the complement receptor Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) of newly recruited macrophages in liposome recognition. Journal of Controlled Release, 78(1-3), 55-65. https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/S0168-3659(01)00481-3