Integration of detrital gold microchemistry, heavy mineral distribution and sediment geochemistry to clarify regional metallogeny in glaciated terrains

application in the Caledonides of southeast Ireland

Norman Moles, Rob Chapman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Regional exploration for rare and precious metal enrichment traditionally uses multielement geochemical analysis of the fnes (<150 μm) fraction of stream sediments; however, these data can be misleading in glaciated regions with complex geology. Here, we compare the spatial distributions of data from sediment fnes with distributions of heavy mineral concentrates, including detrital gold, in the same region. Gold grains are characterized according to abundance and morphology plus a microchemical signature from the combination of alloy analysis and systematic identifcation of mineral inclusions revealed in polished sections. These inclusions survive indefnitely and are indicative of hypogene mineralogy, whereas the metal loadings of fnes may be affected by weathering or anthropogenic activity. All three approaches are mutually supportive: sediment fnes analyses provide a basis for more labor-intensive targeted gold-grain studies, which in turn highlight specifc gold-element associations useful for interpretation of geochemical data sets. Spatial distributions of resistate heavy mineral suites constrain the directions and extents of glacial transport, which facilitates more confdent interpretations of placer-lode relationships from gold-grain studies. Characterization of 2,160 gold grains from 40 localities in the auriferous region of southeast Ireland provided a clear indication of proximity of gold to source and identifed gold derived from different episodes of mineralization. A distinction is apparent between gold in the south of the region (Wexford), likely derived from widespread stratabound Au-As-Fe-S mineralization, and that in the north (Wicklow), where the historical placer mining district of the Goldmines River yielded gold with inclusions exhibiting a distinctive Pb-Bi-As association. The Goldmines River placers formed by the effcient accumulation and preservation of detrital gold derived from several discrete intravalley sources. We recommend that a combination of classic stream-sediment geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis, and gold-grain studies is used more widely to provide additional insights on the location and nature of gold mineralization and regional metallogeny in regions of poor exposure and complex geology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-232
Number of pages26
JournalEconomic Geology
Volume114
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

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heavy mineral
gold
geochemistry
sediment
mineralization
distribution
fluvial deposit
glacial transport
geology
spatial distribution
precious metal
river
mineralogy
human activity
weathering
labor

Keywords

  • Placer gold
  • detrital gold
  • heavy minerals
  • stream sediment geochemistry
  • glaciated terrain
  • metallogeny
  • orogenic gold
  • microchemical characterization
  • Caledonides

Cite this

@article{0df234683f2d4b50aeda671ccac49f19,
title = "Integration of detrital gold microchemistry, heavy mineral distribution and sediment geochemistry to clarify regional metallogeny in glaciated terrains: application in the Caledonides of southeast Ireland",
abstract = "Regional exploration for rare and precious metal enrichment traditionally uses multielement geochemical analysis of the fnes (<150 μm) fraction of stream sediments; however, these data can be misleading in glaciated regions with complex geology. Here, we compare the spatial distributions of data from sediment fnes with distributions of heavy mineral concentrates, including detrital gold, in the same region. Gold grains are characterized according to abundance and morphology plus a microchemical signature from the combination of alloy analysis and systematic identifcation of mineral inclusions revealed in polished sections. These inclusions survive indefnitely and are indicative of hypogene mineralogy, whereas the metal loadings of fnes may be affected by weathering or anthropogenic activity. All three approaches are mutually supportive: sediment fnes analyses provide a basis for more labor-intensive targeted gold-grain studies, which in turn highlight specifc gold-element associations useful for interpretation of geochemical data sets. Spatial distributions of resistate heavy mineral suites constrain the directions and extents of glacial transport, which facilitates more confdent interpretations of placer-lode relationships from gold-grain studies. Characterization of 2,160 gold grains from 40 localities in the auriferous region of southeast Ireland provided a clear indication of proximity of gold to source and identifed gold derived from different episodes of mineralization. A distinction is apparent between gold in the south of the region (Wexford), likely derived from widespread stratabound Au-As-Fe-S mineralization, and that in the north (Wicklow), where the historical placer mining district of the Goldmines River yielded gold with inclusions exhibiting a distinctive Pb-Bi-As association. The Goldmines River placers formed by the effcient accumulation and preservation of detrital gold derived from several discrete intravalley sources. We recommend that a combination of classic stream-sediment geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis, and gold-grain studies is used more widely to provide additional insights on the location and nature of gold mineralization and regional metallogeny in regions of poor exposure and complex geology.",
keywords = "Placer gold, detrital gold, heavy minerals, stream sediment geochemistry, glaciated terrain, metallogeny, orogenic gold, microchemical characterization, Caledonides",
author = "Norman Moles and Rob Chapman",
year = "2019",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Integration of detrital gold microchemistry, heavy mineral distribution and sediment geochemistry to clarify regional metallogeny in glaciated terrains

T2 - application in the Caledonides of southeast Ireland

AU - Moles, Norman

AU - Chapman, Rob

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Regional exploration for rare and precious metal enrichment traditionally uses multielement geochemical analysis of the fnes (<150 μm) fraction of stream sediments; however, these data can be misleading in glaciated regions with complex geology. Here, we compare the spatial distributions of data from sediment fnes with distributions of heavy mineral concentrates, including detrital gold, in the same region. Gold grains are characterized according to abundance and morphology plus a microchemical signature from the combination of alloy analysis and systematic identifcation of mineral inclusions revealed in polished sections. These inclusions survive indefnitely and are indicative of hypogene mineralogy, whereas the metal loadings of fnes may be affected by weathering or anthropogenic activity. All three approaches are mutually supportive: sediment fnes analyses provide a basis for more labor-intensive targeted gold-grain studies, which in turn highlight specifc gold-element associations useful for interpretation of geochemical data sets. Spatial distributions of resistate heavy mineral suites constrain the directions and extents of glacial transport, which facilitates more confdent interpretations of placer-lode relationships from gold-grain studies. Characterization of 2,160 gold grains from 40 localities in the auriferous region of southeast Ireland provided a clear indication of proximity of gold to source and identifed gold derived from different episodes of mineralization. A distinction is apparent between gold in the south of the region (Wexford), likely derived from widespread stratabound Au-As-Fe-S mineralization, and that in the north (Wicklow), where the historical placer mining district of the Goldmines River yielded gold with inclusions exhibiting a distinctive Pb-Bi-As association. The Goldmines River placers formed by the effcient accumulation and preservation of detrital gold derived from several discrete intravalley sources. We recommend that a combination of classic stream-sediment geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis, and gold-grain studies is used more widely to provide additional insights on the location and nature of gold mineralization and regional metallogeny in regions of poor exposure and complex geology.

AB - Regional exploration for rare and precious metal enrichment traditionally uses multielement geochemical analysis of the fnes (<150 μm) fraction of stream sediments; however, these data can be misleading in glaciated regions with complex geology. Here, we compare the spatial distributions of data from sediment fnes with distributions of heavy mineral concentrates, including detrital gold, in the same region. Gold grains are characterized according to abundance and morphology plus a microchemical signature from the combination of alloy analysis and systematic identifcation of mineral inclusions revealed in polished sections. These inclusions survive indefnitely and are indicative of hypogene mineralogy, whereas the metal loadings of fnes may be affected by weathering or anthropogenic activity. All three approaches are mutually supportive: sediment fnes analyses provide a basis for more labor-intensive targeted gold-grain studies, which in turn highlight specifc gold-element associations useful for interpretation of geochemical data sets. Spatial distributions of resistate heavy mineral suites constrain the directions and extents of glacial transport, which facilitates more confdent interpretations of placer-lode relationships from gold-grain studies. Characterization of 2,160 gold grains from 40 localities in the auriferous region of southeast Ireland provided a clear indication of proximity of gold to source and identifed gold derived from different episodes of mineralization. A distinction is apparent between gold in the south of the region (Wexford), likely derived from widespread stratabound Au-As-Fe-S mineralization, and that in the north (Wicklow), where the historical placer mining district of the Goldmines River yielded gold with inclusions exhibiting a distinctive Pb-Bi-As association. The Goldmines River placers formed by the effcient accumulation and preservation of detrital gold derived from several discrete intravalley sources. We recommend that a combination of classic stream-sediment geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis, and gold-grain studies is used more widely to provide additional insights on the location and nature of gold mineralization and regional metallogeny in regions of poor exposure and complex geology.

KW - Placer gold

KW - detrital gold

KW - heavy minerals

KW - stream sediment geochemistry

KW - glaciated terrain

KW - metallogeny

KW - orogenic gold

KW - microchemical characterization

KW - Caledonides

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U2 - 10.5382/econgeo.2019.4628

DO - 10.5382/econgeo.2019.4628

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 207

EP - 232

JO - Economic Geology

JF - Economic Geology

SN - 0361-0128

IS - 2

ER -