Increased mortality, delayed hatching, development aberrations and reduced activity in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to phenethyl isothiocyanate

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Abstract

Plants of the order Brassicaceae have evolved a chemical defence against herbivory: the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. Mechanical damage to plant tissues, such as grazing, initiates the production of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a compound toxic to invertebrates. Mechanical damage caused during biofumigation and the harvesting and washing of watercress presents routes for PEITC release into waterbodies, such as the chalk stream spawning sites of brown trout (Salmo trutta). This laboratory study exposed developing S. trutta embryos to PEITC at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/L. S. trutta exposed to 1 μg/L PEITC during embryonic development resulted in 100% mortality after four dose days. Exposure to 0.1 μg/L PEITC resulted in an approximate fourfold increase in mortality relative to the controls, while exposure to 0.01 μg/L PEITC had a negligible effect on embryo mortality. Embryos exposed to 0.1 μg/L PEITC showed a significant delay in hatching and produced alevins with significantly shorter total lengths, lighter body weights and an approximate threefold increase in spinal deformities relative to those exposed to the controls and 0.01 μg/L PEITC. The results of a motor activity assay demonstrate that alevins exposed to PEITC showed a significant decrease in swimming activity compared with control animals during periods of illumination. The increased mortality, teratogenic effects and impaired behaviour in S. trutta following embryonic exposure to relatively low concentrations of PEITC highlight a need to accurately quantify and monitor environmental levels of PEITC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number231
Pages (from-to)231
JournalWater, Air and Soil Pollution
Volume230
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Trout
Aberrations
hatching
Exposure controls
embryo
mortality
Mortality
Washing
Assays
Animals
Lighting
Tissue
damage
chemical defense
embryonic development
chalk
herbivory
Embryonic Structures
spawning
grazing

Bibliographical note

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Water, Air and Soil Pollution. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4285-8”

Keywords

  • PEITC
  • Watercress
  • Biofumigation
  • Chalk stream

Cite this

@article{37083ca0c7404ef9b7acfb646182efcb,
title = "Increased mortality, delayed hatching, development aberrations and reduced activity in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to phenethyl isothiocyanate",
abstract = "Plants of the order Brassicaceae have evolved a chemical defence against herbivory: the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. Mechanical damage to plant tissues, such as grazing, initiates the production of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a compound toxic to invertebrates. Mechanical damage caused during biofumigation and the harvesting and washing of watercress presents routes for PEITC release into waterbodies, such as the chalk stream spawning sites of brown trout (Salmo trutta). This laboratory study exposed developing S. trutta embryos to PEITC at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/L. S. trutta exposed to 1 μg/L PEITC during embryonic development resulted in 100{\%} mortality after four dose days. Exposure to 0.1 μg/L PEITC resulted in an approximate fourfold increase in mortality relative to the controls, while exposure to 0.01 μg/L PEITC had a negligible effect on embryo mortality. Embryos exposed to 0.1 μg/L PEITC showed a significant delay in hatching and produced alevins with significantly shorter total lengths, lighter body weights and an approximate threefold increase in spinal deformities relative to those exposed to the controls and 0.01 μg/L PEITC. The results of a motor activity assay demonstrate that alevins exposed to PEITC showed a significant decrease in swimming activity compared with control animals during periods of illumination. The increased mortality, teratogenic effects and impaired behaviour in S. trutta following embryonic exposure to relatively low concentrations of PEITC highlight a need to accurately quantify and monitor environmental levels of PEITC.",
keywords = "PEITC, Watercress, Biofumigation, Chalk stream",
author = "Asa White and Angelo Pernetta and Chris Joyce and Neil Crooks",
note = "This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Water, Air and Soil Pollution. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4285-8”",
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T1 - Increased mortality, delayed hatching, development aberrations and reduced activity in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to phenethyl isothiocyanate

AU - White, Asa

AU - Pernetta, Angelo

AU - Joyce, Chris

AU - Crooks, Neil

N1 - This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Water, Air and Soil Pollution. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4285-8”

PY - 2019/10/16

Y1 - 2019/10/16

N2 - Plants of the order Brassicaceae have evolved a chemical defence against herbivory: the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. Mechanical damage to plant tissues, such as grazing, initiates the production of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a compound toxic to invertebrates. Mechanical damage caused during biofumigation and the harvesting and washing of watercress presents routes for PEITC release into waterbodies, such as the chalk stream spawning sites of brown trout (Salmo trutta). This laboratory study exposed developing S. trutta embryos to PEITC at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/L. S. trutta exposed to 1 μg/L PEITC during embryonic development resulted in 100% mortality after four dose days. Exposure to 0.1 μg/L PEITC resulted in an approximate fourfold increase in mortality relative to the controls, while exposure to 0.01 μg/L PEITC had a negligible effect on embryo mortality. Embryos exposed to 0.1 μg/L PEITC showed a significant delay in hatching and produced alevins with significantly shorter total lengths, lighter body weights and an approximate threefold increase in spinal deformities relative to those exposed to the controls and 0.01 μg/L PEITC. The results of a motor activity assay demonstrate that alevins exposed to PEITC showed a significant decrease in swimming activity compared with control animals during periods of illumination. The increased mortality, teratogenic effects and impaired behaviour in S. trutta following embryonic exposure to relatively low concentrations of PEITC highlight a need to accurately quantify and monitor environmental levels of PEITC.

AB - Plants of the order Brassicaceae have evolved a chemical defence against herbivory: the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. Mechanical damage to plant tissues, such as grazing, initiates the production of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a compound toxic to invertebrates. Mechanical damage caused during biofumigation and the harvesting and washing of watercress presents routes for PEITC release into waterbodies, such as the chalk stream spawning sites of brown trout (Salmo trutta). This laboratory study exposed developing S. trutta embryos to PEITC at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/L. S. trutta exposed to 1 μg/L PEITC during embryonic development resulted in 100% mortality after four dose days. Exposure to 0.1 μg/L PEITC resulted in an approximate fourfold increase in mortality relative to the controls, while exposure to 0.01 μg/L PEITC had a negligible effect on embryo mortality. Embryos exposed to 0.1 μg/L PEITC showed a significant delay in hatching and produced alevins with significantly shorter total lengths, lighter body weights and an approximate threefold increase in spinal deformities relative to those exposed to the controls and 0.01 μg/L PEITC. The results of a motor activity assay demonstrate that alevins exposed to PEITC showed a significant decrease in swimming activity compared with control animals during periods of illumination. The increased mortality, teratogenic effects and impaired behaviour in S. trutta following embryonic exposure to relatively low concentrations of PEITC highlight a need to accurately quantify and monitor environmental levels of PEITC.

KW - PEITC

KW - Watercress

KW - Biofumigation

KW - Chalk stream

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DO - 10.1007/s11270-019-4285-8

M3 - Article

VL - 230

SP - 231

JO - Water, Air and Soil Pollution

JF - Water, Air and Soil Pollution

SN - 0049-6979

IS - 11

M1 - 231

ER -