Northern Norrbotten, Sweden is a key part of Baltic Shield and provides a record of magmatic, tectonic and related, superimposed, Fe oxide–apatite and iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) mineralization, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Titanite and allanite from a range of mineral deposits in the area have been analysed for U–Pb isotope systematics and trace element chemistry using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Analyses of a single sample from the regional scapolite–albite alteration give an age of 1903 ± 8 Ma (2σ) and may be contemporaneous with the early stages of Fe mineralization (1890–1870 Ma). Analyses of titanite and allanite from undeformed IOCG deposits indicate initial alteration at 1862 ± 16 Ma. In many deposits subsequent metamorphic effects reset titanite isotope systematics from 1790 to 1800 Ma, resulting in a spread of U–Pb isotope analyses along concordia. In some instances core regions may record evidence of early thermal events at around 2050 Ma. Titanite and allanite from deformed IOCG deposits on major shear zones record ages from 1785 ± 21 Ma to 1777 ± 20 Ma, corresponding to deformation, metamorphism and secondary hydrothermal alteration as a result of late orogenic movements. The lack of intracrystalline variations in titanite and allanite trace element chemistry suggests that hydrothermal fluid chemistry and metal source were the main controls on mineral trace element chemistry. Titanite from undeformed Fe oxide–apatite and IOCG deposits is typically light rare earth element (LREE) enriched, and shows low U/Th ratios and low Ni in both intermediate to acid and basic volcanic-hosted deposits. This is consistent with a granitic source for metals. Minor variations in trace element patterns are consistent with the influence of aqueous complex formation on relative REE solubility. Deposits related to the Nautanen Deformation Zone have relatively heavy REE (HREE)-enriched titanite, and LREE-depleted allanite, with high U/Th ratios and elevated Ni contents, consistent with leaching of metals from the local basic volcanic rocks. All hydrothermal titanites are high field strength element enriched (Nb, Ta, Zr) indicating their transport as a result of either high salinities or high F contents, or both. The data overall support models of IOCG-type mineralization as a result of regional circulation of saline hydrothermal fluids in association with major crustal structures, with at least some metallic components derived from the granitoid rocks of the area. All the deposits here show evidence of subsequent metamorphism, although penetrative fabrics are restricted to regional-scale deformation zones.
Bibliographical note© The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
- U^Pb geochronology