Implications of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in health and disease: a snapshot review

Paul Gard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This review considers the 250+ papers concerning the association of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799752) and various disease conditions published in 2009. The deletion allele occurs in approximately 55% of the population and is associated with increased activity of the ACE enzyme. It might be predicted that the D allele, therefore, might be associated with pathologies involving increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system. The D allele was seen to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, heart failure, cerebral infarct, diabetic nephropathy, encephalopathy, asthma, severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes, gastric cancer (in Caucasians) and poor prognosis following kidney transplant. On the positive side, the D allele appears to offer protection against schizophrenia and chronic periodontitis and confers greater upper-body strength in old age. The I allele, meanwhile, offers improved endurance/athletic performance and aerobic capacity as determined by lung function tests, although it does increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma and obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-147
Number of pages3
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics, IJMEG
Volume1
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2010

Keywords

  • Angiotensin converting enzyme
  • ACE polymorphism
  • renin-angiotensin system
  • hypertension
  • heart failure
  • dementia
  • depression

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