High concentrations of paracetamol in effluent dominated waters of Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

Wulan Koagouw, Zainal Arifin, George Olivier, Corina Ciocan

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The occurrence of several aquatic contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, were investigated in seawater samples collected from effluent-dominated sites in Indonesia: 4 sites in Jakarta Bay and one on the north coast of Central Java. The data presented in this preliminary study provide a snapshot of seawater quality in these areas. Results show that nutrient parameters exceeded the Indonesian Standard Quality of Seawater limits, and some metals were also present. Interestingly, high concentrations of paracetamol were detected at Angke (610 ng/L) and Ancol (420 ng/L), both in Jakarta Bay. To date, this is the first study to report the presence of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the coastal waters around Indonesia. The high concentrations detected, compared to other levels reported in scientific literature, raise concerns about the environmental risks associated with long-term exposure and, especially, the impact on nearby shellfish farms. Given pharmaceuticals' consideration as emerging contaminants, these data suggest further investigations are needed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112558
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2021


  • Bivalves
  • Jakarta Bay
  • Metals
  • Nutrient
  • Paracetamol
  • Seawater


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