In this review, recent models for heating/evaporation of multi-component and blended fuel droplets and their implementation into numerical codes, used for the analysis of the processes in internal combustion engines (ICE), are reviewed. In these models, the diffusion of species, recirculation and temperature gradient inside droplets are considered. The focus of the review is on the group of models based on the implementation of the analytical solutions to the heat transfer and species diffusion equations inside droplets into numerical codes. Four key aspects are summarised: 1) application of the ‘Discrete Component (DC)’ model and ‘Multi-Dimensional Quasi-Discrete model (MDQDM)’ to a broad range of fuels, including petrol, Diesel, ethanol and biodiesel fuels and their blends; 2) formulation of fuel surrogates, with a focus on the recently introduced ‘Complex Fuel Surrogate Model (CFSM)’; 3) overview of the recently introduced transient algorithm, ‘Transient Multi-Dimensional Quasi-Discrete Model (TMDQDM)’, for auto-generation of quasi-components; and 4) implementation of the latter into a CFD code for a realistic engineering application to full cycle simulation in internal combustion engines. The original and modified versions of the DC model and MDQDM are evaluated for heating and evaporation of droplets of bio/fossil-fuel (for example, ethanol/petrol/biodiesel/Diesel) blends. These were implemented into commercial CFD software and validated. The feasibility of formulating complex fuel surrogates for fuel blends, their implementation into CFD codes, and their application in the full engine cycle simulation before and after the onset of combustion (autoignition) are described.
|Journal||Energy & Fuels|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 5 Oct 2021|
- Fuel droplets